298 articles from TUESDAY 6.7.2021

Schools in Barcelona create a map of the city's air pollution thanks to citizen science

A study led by University of Barcelona researchers and carried out together with more than 1,650 students and their family members from 18 educational centers in Barcelona shows that citizen science is a valid approach able for doing high quality science, and in this case, able to provide nitrogen dioxide values with an unprecedented resolution and to assess the impact of the pollution in the...

Secret to weathering climate change lies at our feet

Researchers at the University of Massachusetts Amherst recently discovered that the ability of agricultural grasses to withstand drought is directly related to the health of the microbial community living on their stems, leaves and seeds.

Personalized medicine for cats with heart disease

Veterinarians at the University of California, Davis, have found that a cat's DNA alters how it responds to a life-saving medication used to treat hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, or HCM, a heart disease that affects 1 in 7 cats. The study was published in the journal Scientific Reports.

What We Learned About Relationships During the Pandemic

The pseudo-scientific formula that explains most human bonding is basically time + affection + togetherness = relationship. So what happens to humans and their interconnectedness when two of the key elements—time and togetherness—are removed or increased? Can digital communication replace human to human contact? How do couples cope with stressful events they have never before...

The evolution of vinegar flies is based on the variation of male sex pheromones

By analyzing the genomes of 99 species of vinegar flies and evaluating their chemical odor profiles and sexual behaviors, researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology show that sex pheromones and the corresponding olfactory channels in the insect brain evolve rapidly and independently. Female flies are able to recognize conspecific males through their specific odor profiles....

Relationship between chromosomal instability and senescence revealed in Drosophila

Chromosomal instability is a feature of solid tumors such as carcinoma. Likewise, cellular senescence is a process that is highly related to cellular aging and its link to cancer is becoming increasingly clear. Scientists led by ICREA researcher Dr. Marco Milán at IRB Barcelona have revealed the link between chromosomal instability and cellular senescence.

Satellite galaxies can continue forming stars when they pass close to their parent galaxies

Historically most scientists thought that once a satellite galaxy has passed close by its higher mass parent galaxy, its star formation would stop because the larger galaxy would remove the gas from it, leaving it shorn of the material it would need to make new stars. However, for the first time, a team led by Arianna di Cintio, a researcher at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), has...

Researchers achieve improved prediction of Indian Monsoon onset using machine learning

The onset of the Indian summer monsoon has been predicted three months ahead for the last 40 years with the highest precision up until today. The result indicates longer seasonal forecasts based on machine learning may be a way to mitigate the consequences of an erratic monsoon system under future global warming. Dr. Takahito Mitsui and Dr. Niklas Boers of the Potsdam Institute of Climate Impact...

Not enough women and minorities apply for a job? Change the recruitment committee

Amid calls for racial and social justice nationwide, businesses and educational institutions are grappling with how to adopt more inclusive organizational practices, including more diversified hiring. However, recruitment teams and strategic leaders often blame their lack of a diverse workforce on a lack of diverse applicants. A large study of recruitment data suggests a simple and efficient way...

Studies add to concern about climate tipping

Two model studies document the probability of climate tipping in Earth subsystems. The findings support the urgency of restricting CO2 emissions as abrupt climate changes might be less predictable and more widespread in the climate system than anticipated. The work is part of the European TiPES project, coordinated by the University of Copenhagen, Denmark but was conducted by Professor Michael...

From eyebrow beans to 'lost' rice: Community seedbanks are protecting China's crops

Wangjinzhuang village is nestled amongst the steep slopes of the South Taihang Mountains in Hebei Province, China. To prosper in the northern climate, the villagers have developed a tried-and-true strategy: Using the land to plant a hundred kinds of crops and not rely on the sky. Their fields contain red millet, white sorghum, purple and green eyebrow beans, and yellow radishes. Having survived...

Acid sensor discovered in plants

Climate change is causing increased flooding and prolonged waterlogging in northern Europe, but also in many other parts of the world. This can damage meadow grasses, field crops or other plants—their leaves die, the roots rot.

Predicting the future of cod: Scientists develop new fisheries management planning tool

The future of cod stocks in the North Sea and the Barents Sea may be much easier to predict than before. This is the result of an international research project led by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Hereon and its Institute of Coastal Systems—Analysis and Modeling. For the first time, the team has succeeded in predicting the development of stocks for ten years in advance, taking into account both changes...

Why kiwi and kōkako are more vulnerable than fantails

Life history traits explain the vulnerability of endemic forest birds and predict recovery after predator suppression. New modeling, published in the New Zealand Journal of Ecology, has disentangled the limiting effects of predation, forest area, and food availability to predict the outcomes we can expect for different native bird species in a predator-free New Zealand.

Sexual reproduction without mating

One of the organisms attacked by the fungus Cyclocybe parasitica is the Tawa tree (Beilschmiedia tawa), which is relevant to the timber industry in New Zealand. Cyclocybe parasitica is widespread in the Pacific region and has long been known to the Maori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, under the name Tawaka as an edible wild mushroom.

Editing light-emitting organic molecules via surface modification

Many researchers in the field of materials science constantly seek novel and versatile platforms that can be used to tailor materials to match their intended use. One example of this are covalent organic frameworks (COFs), an emerging class of crystalline porous polymers with a favorable set of fundamental properties, namely crystallinity, stability, and porosity. This combination makes them, in...