163 articles from WEDNESDAY 1.9.2021

Study shows a whale of a difference between songs of birds and humpbacks

Decades of research have been dedicated to understanding humpback whale songs. Why do they sing? What and where is the intended audience of these songs? To help uncover the answers, many scientists have framed whale songs as something similar to bird songs: vocalizations designed for attracting potential mates, or warnings to competitors.

Palm tree disease in Florida transmitted by traveling bug from Jamaica

What began as a curious survey of an insect in Florida revealed a much larger network of movement across the Caribbean basin. Haplaxius crudus, commonly known as the American palm cixiid, transmits phytoplasmas (bacteria that cause plant diseases) in palm. The American palm cixiid is known to transmit lethal yellowing disease and lethal bronzing disease, both of which are lethal to a variety of...

Beyond dopamine: New reward circuitry discovered

The key to overcoming addictions and psychiatric disorders lives deep inside the netherworld of our brains and the circuitry that causes us to feel good. Just like space, this region of the brain needs more exploration. Researchers have now pushed the science forward on our reward pathways and found there is another pathway beyond dopamine.

Having MS plus depression may be tied to increased risk of early death

Depression is common in people with multiple sclerosis (MS), and a new study shows that people with both conditions may be more likely to die over the next decade than people with just one or neither condition. The study also found that people with MS and depression have an increased risk of developing vascular disease such as heart attack and stroke.

Physicists find 'magnon' origins in 2D magnet

Rice physicists have confirmed the topological origins of magnons, magnetic features they discovered three years ago in a 2D material that could prove useful for encoding information in the spins of electrons.

Long-lasting disinfectant promises to help fight pandemics

University of Central Florida researchers have developed a nanoparticle-based disinfectant that can continuously kill viruses on a surface for up to seven days—a discovery that could be a powerful weapon against COVID-19 and other emerging pathogenic viruses.

Organic 2-oxocarboxylic acids provide link to formation of radicals and reactive oxygen species in atmospheric particles

When the humidity in the atmosphere is relatively high, the particles naturally present, also known as aerosol droplets, grow to play a significant role in the chemistry and climate of Earth. These particles are produced from either clean or polluted air, after emissions of gases that nucleate and condense while in the atmosphere. Many times this process is affected by the presence of organic...

NASA's Deep Space Network looks to the future

When NASA's Mars 2020 Perseverance rover touched down on the Red Planet, the agency's Deep Space Network (DSN) was there, enabling the mission to send and receive the data that helped make the event possible. When OSIRIS-REx took samples of asteroid Bennu this past year, the DSN played a crucial role, not just in sending the command sequence to the probe, but also in transmitting its stunning...

Nasal cartilage relieves osteoarthritis in the knee

Cartilage cells from the nasal septum can not only help repair cartilage injuries in the knee -- according to researchers, they can also withstand the chronic inflammatory tissue environment in osteoarthritis and even counteract the inflammation.