199 articles from THURSDAY 4.11.2021

Hubble images colorful planetary nebula ringed by hazy halo

NGC 2438 is a planetary nebula, formed after the death of a Sun-like star. The medium-sized star would have expelled its outer layers of gas into space as it died, leaving behind a white-dwarf core. A halo of glowing gas over 4.5 light-years across surrounds the nebula's brighter inner ring. Many round or nearly round planetary nebulae display these halo structures, and astronomers have been...

How cells correctly choose active genes

It is essential for cells to control precisely which of the many genes of their genetic material they use. This is done in so-called transcription factories, molecular clusters in the nucleus. Researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), and Max Planck Center for Physics and Medicine (MPZPM) have now found that the formation of...

Neutrons take a deep dive into water networks surrounding DNA

Water plays several important roles within the human body, even affecting the DNA in our cells. The entire surface of a DNA double helix is coated in layers of water molecules. This sheath of water attaches to the genetic material through hydrogen bonds, made by sharing hydrogen atoms between molecules. Through hydrogen bonds, water can influence how DNA takes shape and interacts with other...

Nerves may be key to blocking abnormal bone growth in tissue

Blocking a molecule that draws sensory nerves into musculoskeletal injuries prevents heterotopic ossification (HO), a process in which bone abnormally grows in soft tissue during healing, researchers reported. The findings suggest that drugs currently being tested in clinical trials to inhibit this molecule for pain relief could also protect against this challenging condition.

Giving robots social skills

Researchers have developed a control framework that enables robots to understand what it means to help or hinder one another and incorporate social reasoning into the tasks they are accomplishing.

Healable carbon fiber composite offers path to long-lasting, sustainable materials

Because of their high strength and light weight, carbon-fiber-based composite materials are gradually replacing metals for advancing all kinds of products and applications, from airplanes to wind turbines to golf clubs. But there's a trade-off. Once damaged or compromised, the most commonly-used carbon fiber materials are nearly impossible to repair or recycle.