3,140 articles mezi dny 1.1.2022 a 31.1.2022

What the rise of oxygen on early Earth tells us about life on other planets

When did the Earth reach oxygen levels sufficient to support animal life? Researchers have discovered that a rise in oxygen levels occurred in step with the evolution and expansion of complex, eukaryotic ecosystems. Their findings represent the strongest evidence to date that extremely low oxygen levels exerted an important limitation on evolution for billions of years.

Chemists unlock the key to improving biofuel and biomaterial production

As the world searches for and demands more sustainable sources of energy and materials, plant biomass may provide the solution by serving as a renewable resource for biomaterials and biofuel production. However, until now, the complex physical and chemical interactions in plant biomass have been a challenge in post-harvest processing.

What the rise of oxygen on early Earth tells us about life on other planets

When did the Earth reach oxygen levels sufficient to support animal life? Researchers from McGill University have discovered that a rise in oxygen levels occurred in step with the evolution and expansion of complex, eukaryotic ecosystems. Their findings represent the strongest evidence to date that extremely low oxygen levels exerted an important limitation on evolution for billions of years.

A new method for mapping gene expression deep in the body could one day be used to track stem cells or cancer therapy

Even fans of black-and-white film can't deny that color brought new life to photography and motion pictures. And when it comes to learning what happens inside the body, there's no substitute for color. Were it possible, for example, to map out real-time gene expression in our body's cells using contrasting colors, scientists would gain a glimpse of vital biological processes that are currently...

Harnessing a natural geochemical reaction to combat antibiotic resistance

Antibiotics have allowed for the widespread control of bacterial infections, which had been the leading cause of death historically. However, the overuse of traditional antibiotics in humans and animals has resulted in the emergence of stronger, more potent bacterial strains that are no longer treatable with conventional antibiotics.

Protein machinery of respiration becomes visible

Oxygen and sugar are the basis of life for animals, plants, fungi and many bacteria. The metabolic process called respiration makes it possible to convert food into energy for the cells. Biochemist Prof. Dr. Carola Hunte and her team from the Cluster of Excellence CIBSS at the University of Freiburg have now visualized for the first time with unparalleled precision how an assembly of protein...

Safeguarding the cell nucleus

The nucleus is guarded by a highly secure door, the so-called nuclear pore, that controls the transport of substances from the cytoplasm to the cell nucleus and back. A research group has now shown that different shuttle proteins occupy the nuclear pore to prevent unsolicited leakage of molecules. These proteins form an escape-proof, failsafe mechanism by compensating for one another to fortify...

Molecular machine in nano cage

Theoretical chemists have constructed a molecular gyroscope that can be controlled remotely by light. They also succeeded in characterizing the rotational movements of this synthetic nanomachine with computer simulations.

Unveiling the secrets of biofilms

Most bacteria have the ability to form communities, biofilms, that adhere to a wide variety of surfaces and are difficult to remove. This can lead to major problems, for example in hospitals or in the food industry. Now, an international team has studied a model system for biofilms at the synchrotron radiation facilities BESSY II at HZB and the ESRF and found out what role the structures within...

Power at sea: Towards high-performance seawater batteries

Despite the many potential applications of seawater batteries (SWBs), the limited performance of available materials has hindered their commercialization. To tackle this issue, scientists have developed a novel co-doped carbon material for the anode of SWBs. Their straightforward synthesis route and the high performance of the developed anode material will pave the way for the widespread adoption...

Researchers discover how the placenta may be blocking SARS-CoV-2 transmission to babies during pregnancy

While COVID-19 disease significantly impacts many pregnant women, the rates of transmission from mother to baby in pregnancy are very low. A new study has demonstrated that ACE-2, the receptor that allows SARS-CoV-2 to enter cells, is found in lower levels in the placentas of women with COVID-19 in pregnancy compared to women with normal (COVID negative) pregnancies.

The two types of climate coping and what they mean for your health

When it comes to coping with climate change, there may be two types of people: those who take action to try to improve the environment and those who don't bother because they don't believe their actions will make a difference. Knowing who's who could help policymakers communicate more effectively about environmental issues, new research suggests.