140 articles from WEDNESDAY 5.1.2022

Heat conduction is important for droplet dynamics

For driving in the rain, it's preferable that the raindrops roll or bounce off the windshield instead of coating it or even freezing. A team of engineers in the McKelvey School of Engineering at Washington University in St. Louis has found that conduction of heat plays a larger role than previously thought in the dynamics of droplets on smooth surfaces that repel water.

New research sheds light on the division of labor among genetic switches

The cells of female mammals have a dosage problem, because they have twice as many X chromosomes as are needed in the body. Consequently, one of them is randomly selected and switched off already during early embryonic development. The Xist gene awakens and produces hundreds of RNA molecules, encasing one X chromosome and making it shrink into a small lump.

There's more to learn about Grapevine Pinot gris virus, and new technology can help

Focusing on a specific vineyard in the Chateauneuf-du-Pape region in the Southern part of France, plant pathologists spent 8 years monitoring more than 60 plants for signs of Grapevine Pinot gris virus (GPGV). Contrary to previous observations in Italy, they observed an explosive propagation of the virus, with more than 75 percent of tested plants becoming infected between 2014 and 2015....

Findings open the way to more precise diagnoses and treatments of Alzheimer’s disease

An international team has made a significant breakthrough in understanding why Alzheimer's disease progresses so rapidly in some people that they die within three years. The researchers found a link between strains of misshapen and fast-replicating tau protein and accelerated cognitive decline -- a critical result that illuminates the variations in Alzheimer's disease and could help lead to more...

Engineered nanomaterial captures off-target cancer drug to prevent tissue damage

Standard chemotherapies may efficiently kill cancer cells, but they also pose significant risks to healthy cells, resulting in secondary illness and a diminished quality of life for patients. To prevent the previously unavoidable damage, researchers have developed a new class of nanomaterials engineered to capture chemotherapy drugs before they interact with healthy tissue.

Engineers develop new software tool to aid material modeling research

A new software tool can accelerate materials science research by cutting out tedious background research on material properties. Researchers recently debuted propSym, an open-source software on the programming platform MATLAB, to calculate the fundamental constants needed to describe the physical properties of solids, such as metals, ceramics or composites.

Modern humans developed a more effective protection against oxidative stress

Very few proteins in the body have a change that makes them unique compared to the corresponding proteins in Neanderthals and apes. Researchers have now studied one such protein, glutathione reductase, which protects against oxidative stress. They show that the risk for inflammatory bowel disease and vascular disease is increased several times in people carrying the Neanderthal variant.

Engineers develop new software tool to aid material modeling research

A new software tool can accelerate materials science research by cutting out tedious background research on material properties. Penn State and Sandia National Laboratories researchers recently debuted propSym, an open-source software on the programming platform MATLAB, to calculate the fundamental constants needed to describe the physical properties of solids, such as metals, ceramics or...

Researchers pioneer new method to edit genes in human cells

Over the past decade, the CRISPR genome-editing system has revolutionized molecular biology, giving scientists the ability to alter genes inside living cells for research or medical applications. Now, researchers at Gladstone Institutes have fine-tuned an additional system for more efficient gene editing, using molecules called retrons.

Engineered nanomaterial captures off-target cancer drug to prevent tissue damage

Standard chemotherapies may efficiently kill cancer cells, but they also pose significant risks to healthy cells, resulting in secondary illness and a diminished quality of life for patients. To prevent the previously unavoidable damage, researchers, led by Penn State, have developed a new class of nanomaterials engineered to capture chemotherapy drugs before they interact with healthy tissue.

New color-coded test quickly reveals whether medical nanoparticles have successfully delivered their payload

Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers have developed a color-coded test that quickly signals whether newly developed nanoparticles—ultra small compartments designed to ferry medicines, vaccines and other therapies—deliver their cargo into target cells. Historically, nanoparticles have a very low delivery rate to the cytosol, the inside compartment of cells, releasing only about 1%–2% of their...

How dairy farmers can adapt to climate change

Dairy farmers in the Northeast—facing a warming climate that exacerbates nutrient pollution but lengthens the growing season—can reduce the environmental impact of their operations and maximize revenues by double cropping and injecting manure into the soil, rather than broadcasting it.