181 articles from WEDNESDAY 12.1.2022

Measuring medicine use in livestock supports the fight against antimicrobial resistance

Measuring how much antimicrobial medication is given to food animals is key to understanding how to slow antimicrobial resistance, when dangerous microbes get so used to antimicrobials that they evolve stronger defenses against them. However, measuring the actual antimicrobial use in animals on a large scale is still a logistical challenge. Because data on antimicrobial sales for use in food...

Widespread megaripple activity found on Martian north pole area

Megaripples, intermediate-scale bedforms caused by the action of the wind, have been studied extensively and thought to be largely inactive relics of past climates, save for a few exceptions. A new paper by Planetary Science Institute Research Scientist Matthew Chojnacki shows that abundant megaripple populations were identified across the north polar region of Mars and were found to be migrating...

New study shows the toll industrial farming takes on bird diversity

A new study looking into the impacts that large industrial farming has on biodiversity found that increased farm size causes a decline in bird diversity. Researchers studied how different farming indicators impact the diversity of local birds in the farmland bordering the former Iron Curtain in Germany. They found that increased farm sizes resulted in a 15 per cent decline in bird diversity.

Machine learning for morphable materials

Flat materials that can morph into three-dimensional shapes have potential applications in architecture, medicine, robotics, space travel, and much more. But programming these shape changes requires complex and time-consuming computations. Now, researchers have developed a platform that uses machine learning to program the transformation of 2D stretchable surfaces into specific 3D shapes.

Study finds neighborhood environment is a key to injury recovery for Black men

Black men are disproportionately impacted by injuries in the United States. This disparity is glaring given that injury is one of the top ten causes of death. Data show that injured Black men from disadvantaged neighborhoods experience higher injury mortality, years of life-expectancy loss, and psychological symptoms that persist after initial wounds have been treated.

Cosmic 'spider' found to be source of powerful gamma-rays

Using the 4.1-meter SOAR Telescope in Chile, astronomers have discovered the first example of a binary system where a star in the process of becoming a white dwarf is orbiting a neutron star that has just finished turning into a rapidly spinning pulsar. The pair, originally detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, is a "missing link" in the evolution of such binary systems.

New treatment target identified for radiation-resistant cervical cancer

Understanding how cells die is key to developing new treatments for many diseases, whether the goal is to make cancer cells die or keep healthy cells alive in the face of other illnesses, such as massive infections or strokes. Two new studies from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have identified a previously unrecognized pathway of cell death—named lysoptosis—and...

Exploring oxygen ions in Jupiter's innermost radiation belts

Planets like Earth, Jupiter and Saturn, with global magnetic fields of their own, are surrounded by so-called radiation belts: Trapped in the magnetic field, fast moving charged particles such as electrons, protons, and heavier ions whiz aroun, thus forming the invisible, torus-shaped radiation belts. With their high velocities reaching almost the speed of light, the particles can ionize other...

Under a moon spell: Shark attacks related to lunar phases

New research suggests that more shark attacks occur during fuller phases of the moon. While the exact cause remains unclear, the researchers found that more shark attacks than average occur during periods of higher lunar illumination and fewer attacks than average occur during periods of lower illumination. Many different types of animals show behaviors that are linked to moon phases yet few...

Dairy calves are social animals

Most dairy calves are housed individually in the first weeks and sometimes months of their lives, a practice that has come under scrutiny for its effects on animal behavior, welfare, and health. Despite growing scientific and public support for social housing, approximately 75% and 60% of preweaning dairy calves in the United States and Europe, respectively, are still housed individually. A new...