167 articles from TUESDAY 8.11.2022

Geoscientists discover 500,000 years of climate history in central Mexico

The effects of climate change on tropical regions are still poorly understood. However, tropical regions are among the most populated areas in the world. Researchers at the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics (LIAG) have now created both an age-depth model and a moisture distribution for the last 500,000 years from one of the oldest lakes in central Mexico, Lake Chalco.

Why are sustainable practices often elusive?

For at least 200,000 years, we humans have been trying to understand our environments and adapt to them. At times, we have succeeded; often, we have not. When we get it wrong—through anthropogenic exacerbations leading to the Dust Bowl and the growth of the dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico—the results can be disastrous. However, in both success and failure, we can learn from our past...

Novel atlas shows vast urban infrastructure divide between Global South and Global North

New data from an international research team adds another dimension -- literally -- to understanding the economic and environmental impacts of how cities are built. Using satellite mapping, researchers measured the height of built-up infrastructure in urban areas across the globe, which could improve projections of energy use and emissions and inform city planning and economic development efforts,...

Astronomers await verdict in defamation case after protesting hire of accused harasser

A high-profile sexual harassment case 7 years ago in California is now reverberating in Europe, with implications for those who speak out against the unsavory academic practice of “passing the harasser.” In February 2018, two astrophysicists at the University of Helsinki, Syksy Räsänen and Till Sawala, spearheaded an open letter from more than 70 Finnish astronomers and...

Childhood traumas strongly impact both mental and physical health

Most Americans report experiencing at least one traumatic event in childhood, and a new study shows that these experiences have significant impacts on our health risks as adults. Physical illnesses such as obesity and chronic pain are affected, but mental disorders show the most significant association, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), bipolar disorder, substance abuse, and...

Tracing tomatoes' health benefits to gut microbes

Two weeks of eating a diet heavy in tomatoes increased the diversity of gut microbes and altered gut bacteria toward a more favorable profile in young pigs, researchers found. After observing these results with a short-term intervention, the research team plans to progress to similar studies in people.

What purpose do reduced mitochondria serve?

A few years ago, scientists discovered a curious case of protozoa (oxymonads) that do not have mitochondria. Since then, the research group of Associate Professor Hampl from the Faculty of Science of Charles University and the BIOCEV research center has been asking how the unique loss of mitochondria occurred.

COP27: How responsible are rich countries for global warming?

The United Nation's 27th annual climate summit, COP27, opened on Monday in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt. The event, which should pressure governments into ramping up their decarbonization pledges, will be the first to put the issue of financial compensation for damages suffered by developing countries at the top of the agenda. What is at stake and who are the movers and shakers of climate finance?

A study discovers a surprising relationship between the teeth and the evolution of pregnancy

Humans have the highest prenatal growth rate of all extant primates, but how this exceptional rate came about has been a mystery up to now. Leslea Hlusko, a scientist at the Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre la Evolución Humana (CENIEH), has participated in a study led by Tesla Monson, a paleoanthropologist at Western Washington University (WWU) in the United States), looking at teeth,...

Plagues of the past have a lot to tell us about current crises, according to a new study

As the COVID-19 pandemic settled in over the course of the first half of 2020, few works enjoyed as much renewed interest as those of the Algerian-born French existentialist Albert Camus. His classic 1947 novel "The Plague" tells the story of a town beset and isolated by an outbreak of the bubonic plague. The plague drags on and health authorities struggle to contain it. The population experiences...

Study: Pandemic disrupted city sustainability efforts, yet increased focus on initiatives

The COVID-19 pandemic forced everyone to reexamine their priorities. Local governments were no exception, and a new study from the University of Kansas has found that while the pandemic did cause municipalities to adjust their focus on sustainability efforts, it did not devastate them, and in some cases, caused cities to put new emphasis on certain types of sustainability initiatives.

Tiger sharks that interact with tourists are larger and have higher hormone levels, study shows

Tiger Beach in the Bahamas is famous for its paradisiacal beauty and for being frequented by an animal that might scare most people away but is actually an outstanding diving tourism attraction: the Tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier). The sea is crystal clear and only 5 m deep on average, so the sharks, which can surpass 3 m in length, can easily be seen. They are drawn to the site by local tour...