146 articles from FRIDAY 1.3.2024

Puzzling skin side effects stymie advance of promising HIV vaccine

One of the most promising attempts to reinvigorate the stalled quest for an HIV vaccine has hit a snag that might seem minor but has major consequences: delaying the larger trials needed to show whether the concept works. In small safety and immune tests of the innovative vaccine strategy, which relies on a series of messenger RNA (mRNA) shots, an unusually high percentage of...

Single orca seen killing great white shark off South African coast

Attack on juvenile is thought to be first known time a lone orca has hunted down a great whiteIt is a smash and grab that has stunned scientists: in less than two minutes, a killer whale attacked and consumed a great white shark before swimming off with the victim’s liver in its mouth.Experts say the event off the coast of Mossel Bay in South Africa offers new insights into the predatory...

Researchers create coating solution for safer food storage

Galvanized steel containers and surfaces are used for harvested produce because of their durability, strength and lower cost compared to stainless steel. However, bacteria residing in storage containers can cause corrosion. The new coating will reduce corrosion by at least 70 percent, researchers say.

New findings on the immune system

T follicular helper cells (Tfh) are essential for strong antibody-mediated reactions of our immune system during infections and vaccinations. However, if they get out of control, this can cause diseases such as autoimmunity, allergies or cancer. Researchers have investigated the underlying mechanisms of Tfh cell development in a mouse model and thus decoded their internal networking. They hope...

Team finds novel vehicle for antibiotic resistance

Antibiotic resistance is a significant and growing medical problem worldwide. Researchers at the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) and collaborators have found a novel genetic arrangement that may help a common bacterium in the human gut, Bacteroides fragilis, protect itself from tetracycline, a widely used antibiotic.

After protests, U.S. agency drops plan to limit pesticide use report

After protests from hundreds of scientists , the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is dropping plans to scale back reporting to a widely used database that tracks the use of approximately 400 agricultural chemicals in the United States. Researchers are welcoming the agency’s decision, announced this week, to reverse moves to reduce the number of chemicals tracked by...

A valid U.S. visa didn’t stop these Chinese graduate students from being deported

More than a dozen Chinese graduate students holding valid U.S. visas are the latest pawns amid the rising political tensions between the two countries. In the past 3 months, students in Ph.D. science programs at Yale University, Johns Hopkins University, and other major U.S. research universities have been denied re-entry after visiting family in China—and immediately sent back...

Researchers use GPS-tracked icebergs in novel study to improve climate models

Research unearthed new information to help scientists better understand circulation patterns of ocean water around glaciers. In the summers of 2014 and 2019, a group of pioneers in glacial research attached GPS devices to 13 icebergs and tracked hourly changes in their positions as they passed through Greenland's Ilulissat Icefjord toward the ocean. Study results showed circulation in the primary...

New antibodies target 'dark side' of influenza virus protein

Researchers have identified antibodies targeting a hard-to-spot region of the influenza virus, shedding light on the relatively unexplored 'dark side' of the neuraminidase (NA) protein head. The antibodies target a region of the NA protein that is common among many influenza viruses, including H3N2 subtype viruses, and could be a new target for countermeasures.

Convergent evolution of algal CO2-fixing organelles

Researchers identified the proteins of a CO2-fixing organelle, namely, 'pyrenoid,' in the marine algal group Chlorarachniophyta and revealed various pyrenoid-associated proteins among algal groups, suggesting the independent evolution of pyrenoids in different algal groups.

Healthy sleep needs a healthy day: boost exercise to beat your bedtime blues

Early riser or night owl, everyone appreciates a good night's sleep. But despite the best of intentions, quality sleep can elude us, sometimes to the point where it can contribute to serious health issues. Now, a new study shows that getting a good night's sleep is tied to how you structure your day, with exercise at the heart of sleep quality.

Unlocking the potential of lithium-ion batteries with advanced binders

Lithium-ion batteries employ binders that encounter challenges such as poor conductivity and expansion during charging. In a recent study, scientists have developed a high-performing binder using poly(vinylphosphonic acid) for silicon oxide-based anodes in lithium-ion batteries. This binder offers enhanced performance as demonstrated by the superior durability, and discharging capacity of the...

AI-enabled atomic robotic probe to advance quantum material manufacturing

Scientists have pioneered a new methodology of fabricating carbon-based quantum materials at the atomic scale by integrating scanning probe microscopy techniques and deep neural networks. This breakthrough highlights the potential of implementing artificial intelligence at the sub-angstrom scale for enhanced control over atomic manufacturing, benefiting both fundamental research and future...

New insights on how galaxies are formed

Astronomers can use supercomputers to simulate the formation of galaxies from the Big Bang 13.8 billion years ago to the present day. But there are a number of sources of error. An international research team has spent a hundred million computer hours over eight years trying to correct these.

Early vocabulary size is genetically linked to ADHD, literacy, and cognition

Are genetic factors underlying children's language development linked to later-life outcomes? In a genome-wide analysis, an international research team found genetic associations between children's early vocabulary size and later-life ADHD, literacy, and general cognition. These associations changed dynamically across the first three years of life. Both producing more words in infancy and...