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210,321 articles from PhysOrg

Exploring the source of stars and planets in a laboratory

A new method for verifying a widely held but unproven theoretical explanation of the formation of stars and planets has been proposed by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The method grows from simulation of the Princeton Magnetorotational Instability (MRI) Experiment, a unique laboratory device that aims to demonstrate the MRI process...

Fipronil, a common insecticide, disrupts aquatic communities in the US

The presence of insecticides in streams is increasingly a global concern, yet information on safe concentrations for aquatic ecosystems is sometimes sparse. In a new study led by Colorado State University's Janet Miller and researchers at the United States Geological Survey, the team found a common insecticide, fipronil, and related compounds were more toxic to stream communities than previous...

Elkhorn coral actively fighting off diseases on reef, study finds

As the world enters a next wave of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, we are aware now more than ever of the importance of a healthy immune system to protect ourselves from disease. This is not only true for humans but corals too, which are in an ongoing battle to ward off deadly diseases spreading on a reef.

Coastal permafrost more susceptible to climate change than previously thought

If you flew from the sea towards the land in the north slope of Alaska, you would cross from the water, over a narrow beach, and then to the tundra. From the air, that tundra would look like a landscape of room-sized polygonal shapes. Those shapes are the surface manifestations of the ice in the frozen ground below, a solidified earth known as permafrost.

SPOTlight supercharges cell studies

Researchers at Rice University and Baylor College of Medicine have developed a new method to isolate specific cells, and in the process found a more robust fluorescent protein.

Discovery of pH-dependent 'switch' in interaction between pair of protein molecules

All biological processes are in some way pH-dependent. Human bodies and those of other organisms need to maintain specific and constant pH regulation in order to function. Changes in pH can have serious biological consequences—or serious benefits, as researchers at the Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology (QIBEBT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) found.

Seabird response to abrupt climate change 5,000 years ago transformed Falklands ecosystems: study

The Falkland Islands are a South Atlantic refuge for some of the world's most important seabird species, including five species of penguins, Great Shearwaters, and White-chinned Petrels. In recent years, their breeding grounds in the coastal tussac (Poa flabellata) grasslands have come under increasing pressure from sheep grazing and erosion. And unlike other regions of the globe, there has been...

Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) exhibit extreme pulses

Extreme events occur in many observable contexts. Nature is a prolific source: rogue water waves surging high above the swell, monsoon rains, wildfire, etc. From climate science to optics, physicists have classified the characteristics of extreme events, extending the notion to their respective domains of expertise. For instance, extreme events can take place in telecommunication data streams. In...

Extruded grains may be better for pigs

Extrusion is the norm in the pet and aqua feed industries, yet it remains unusual for swine feed in the United States. But the technology can improve energy and protein digestibility in pigs, according to research from the University of Illinois.

Study finds field of forensic anthropology lacks diversity

The field of forensic anthropology is a relatively homogenous discipline in terms of diversity (people of color, LGBTQ+ individuals, people with mental and physical disabilities, etc.) and this is highly problematic for the field of study and for most forensic anthropologists.

Scientists manage to improve metallic glasses

Researchers at National University of Science and Technology MISIS (NUST MISIS) have managed to develop a unique method to process bulk metallic glasses. According to the authors of the study, they have managed to find processing conditions that significantly improve the quality of this promising material. The research results were published in Journal of Alloys and Compounds.

New test method to standardize immunological evaluation of nucleic acid nanoparticles

Therapeutic nucleic acids—lab-created segments of DNA or RNA, designed be used to block or modify genes, control gene expression or regulate other cellular processes—are a promising but still emerging area of biomedical treatment, with several drugs already in use and many more in trials. Nucleic acid nanoparticles (NANPs) are programmable assemblies made exclusively of nucleic acids with a...

Cyanobacteria: Small candidates as great hopes for medicine and biotechnology

An ever-growing global population, an increasing standard of living and environmental challenges such as anthropogenic climate change, ocean pollution, the declining availability of arable land and dwindling fossil resources—these are today's global challenges. Therefore, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research has dedicated the Science Year 2020/21 to the topic Bioeconomy with the...

Turning a common plastic into high-value molecules

If you thought those flimsy disposable plastic grocery bags represented most of our plastic waste problem, think again. The volume of plastic the world throws away every year could rebuild the Ming Dynasty's Great Wall of China—about 3,700 miles long.

Researchers reveal why heat stress damages sperm

University of Oregon biologists have used the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to identify molecular mechanisms that produce DNA damage in sperm and contribute to male infertility following exposure to heat.

Precision metrology closes in on dark matter

Optical clocks are so accurate that it would take an estimated 20 billion years—longer than the age of the universe—to lose or gain a second. Now, researchers in the U.S. led by Jun Ye's group at the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado have exploited the precision and accuracy of their optical clock and the unprecedented stability of their crystalline...