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229,957 articles from PhysOrg

Study finds nearly 500 ancient ceremonial sites in southern Mexico

A team of international researchers led by the University of Arizona reported last year that they had uncovered the largest and oldest Maya monument—Aguada Fénix. That same team has now uncovered nearly 500 smaller ceremonial complexes that are similar in shape and features to Aguada Fénix. The find transforms previous understanding of Mesoamerican civilization origins and the relationship...

Study explores how climate change may affect rain in U.S. Corn Belt

Air humidity is more important than soil moisture in influencing whether it rains in the United States Corn Belt, an agricultural area in the Midwest, stretching from Indiana to Nebraska and responsible for more than 35% of the world's most important grain crop, according to a new study by Penn State researchers.

The human GID complex engages two independent modules for substrate recruitment

A new paper by the Peter group of the ETH Zurich's Institute of Biochemistry (IBC) finds that the human GID E3 ubiquitin ligase forms a tetrameric complex with two distinct substrate-recruitment modules, namely WDR26-RanBP9 and GID4-ARMC8a. Although the shorter ARMC8b isoform stably assembles into the hGID complex, it lacks the ability to recruit the GID4 substrate-receptor.

Biophysics analysis made easy with an online tool

EMBL Hamburg's García Alai Team has released eSPC, a freely available online platform for analyzing molecular biophysics data from a range of experimental techniques. The tool enables scientists around the world to easily analyze their data without the need to travel to the laboratory where the data was generated.

One plus one does not equal two: Research team investigates receptors that form pairs on the surface of cells

There are a number of G protein-coupled receptors in human cells. As an important component of the cell membrane, these proteins are responsible for detecting different stimuli in the surroundings of a cell within the body and transferring this information to the cell interior. They may act individually or in pairs, and this can have a crucial effect on their function. Together with colleagues...

Sloshing electrons in a charge density wave

In the latest edition of Physical Review B, UvA Ph.D. candidate Xuanbo Feng (QuSoft and IoP) and colleagues write about their recent experiments on a material that can go from a normal metal state to a more exotic state known as a "charge density wave state."

New study finds black spruce trees struggling to regenerate amid more frequent arctic fires

A new study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), finds that black spruce trees—a key species on the boreal landscape for millennia—are losing their resilience and capacity to regenerate in the face of warming temperatures and increasingly frequent Arctic wildfires. A continuation of this trend could result in a landscape-wide ecological shift that would...

New molecule targets, images and treats lung cancer tumors in mice

Lung cancer can be elusive to spot and difficult to treat because the markers for it are found in other tissues, too. Now, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign researchers have developed a finely tuned molecular agent that can target lung and other cancer cells for imaging and treatment.

Aquatic fungus has already wiped amphibians off the map and now threatens survival of terrestrial frogs

A water-borne fungus that has led to the extinction of several species of amphibians that spend all or part of their life cycle in water is also threatening terrestrial amphibians. In Brazil, researchers supported by FAPESP detected unprecedented mortality among a genus of tiny frogs known as pumpkin toadlets that live in the Atlantic Rainforest far from any aquatic environments. The animals were...

Seagrass restoration study shows rapid recovery of ecosystem functions

As the dominant seagrass species on the U.S. West Coast, eelgrass supports a wide range of ecosystem services and functions, making its preservation and restoration a top priority for the region. Eelgrass restoration has a spotty record of success, however, and studies of restoration sites have rarely assessed the full range of ecosystem functions.

Scientists reveal genetic secrets of stress-tolerant mangrove trees

Mangrove trees straddle the boundary between land and ocean, in harsh environments characterized by rapidly changing levels of salinity and low oxygen. For most plants, these conditions would mark a death sentence, but mangroves have evolved a remarkable resistance to the stresses of these hostile locations.

Ammonia synthesis by mechanocatalysis in a ball mill

A breakthrough in the fight against hunger, three Nobel Prizes, and 150 million tonnes of annual production—yet still a tricky topic for research: For over 100 years, the chemical industry has been using the Haber-Bosch process to convert atmospheric nitrogen and hydrogen into ammonia, an important component of mineral fertilizers and many other chemical products. Scientists at the...

Atomic-scale 'lasagna' keeps heat at bay

Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University have found new ways of controlling how heat flows through thin materials by stacking atomically thin layers of atoms into van der Waals heterostructures. By comparing different stacks of different materials, or even the same material after heat treatment, they found that weak coupling and mismatch between layers helped significantly reduce heat...

Identification of genes that cause resistance to treatment of the pathogenic fungus Candida

It is estimated that 80% of women will suffer from vaginal candidiasis at least once in their lives. In addition to superficial infections, which can be oral or vaginal and do not usually have a serious prognosis, fungi of the Candida  genus can cause systemic diseases in immunocompromised individuals and these are fatal in 40% of cases. Drugs are available to treat these conditions, but doctors...

Neutron star collisions are 'goldmine' of heavy elements, study finds

Most elements lighter than iron are forged in the cores of stars. A star's white-hot center fuels the fusion of protons, squeezing them together to build progressively heavier elements. But beyond iron, scientists have puzzled over what could give rise to gold, platinum, and the rest of the universe's heavy elements, whose formation requires more energy than a star can muster.

A compound with a laser-induced 'switching' of biological activity

Scientists at St Petersburg University together with researchers from St. Petersburg Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SPC RAS) and the Scientific Research Centre for Ecological Safety of the Russian Academy of Sciences have developed a new organic compound demonstrating a laser-induced enhancement in its biological activity. The discovered phosphonate will enable the...

Trigonopterus corona, the new species of tiny beetle named after the coronavirus

Many curious animals can be found on the Indonesian Island of Sulawesi—such as the deer-hog and the midget buffalo. But the island's tropical forests hide a diversity of tiny insects that still remains largely unexplored. Museum scientists from Indonesia and Germany have just discovered 28 new species of beetles, all belonging to the weevil genus Trigonopterus.

Mapping the path to carbon neutrality

Ahead of COP26 in Glasgow, the University of Surrey has published a paper in Sustainability detailing how it will reduce its carbon emissions and reach Net-Zero by 2030. In the paper, Surrey's researchers share ideas and provide guidance on how other universities can apply the Science-Based Targets Initiative (SBTi). 

Insect digestive enzyme activates sugar-containing plant defence substance

Plants are not entirely at the mercy of their herbivore enemies. Often, chemical defenses ensure that the plants are inedible, or even toxic, and as a result insects and other hungry animals steer clear of them. A new study has shown, for the first time, that the degradation of plants' defense substances by insects' digestive enzymes can influence the insects' preference for certain food plants....

The underestimated impact of vapor pressure deficit on terrestrial carbon cycle

This study is led by Dr. Bin He (College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University) and Dr. Wenping Yuan (School of Atmospheric Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University). Terrestrial ecosystem, as a major carbon sink, plays an important role in regulating the global carbon cycle and atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio. Traditionally, atmospheric temperature or land water availability...

Interglobular dentine identified in cremated human teeth

The cremation process destroys a lot of information that can usually be obtained from the human skeleton. Diseases are especially difficult to observe. This has caused a paucity in our knowledge of the disease load in populations that practiced cremation as their main funerary ritual. Dr. Barbara Veselka and Prof. Christophe Snoeck, of the Brussels Bioarchaeology Lab and research groups MARI and...

White flight may still enforce segregation

As the population of people of color grows across the United States, white Americans are still prone to move when neighborhoods diversify, and their fears and stereotypical beliefs about other racial and ethnic groups may help maintain segregation, according to research published by the American Psychological Association.

Looking for musical abilities in primates

Songbirds share the human sense of rhythm, but it is a rare trait in non-human mammals. An international research team led by senior investigators Marco Gamba from the University of Turin and MPI's Andrea Ravignani set out to look for musical abilities in primates. "There is longstanding interest in understanding how human musicality evolved, but musicality is not restricted to humans," says...

Ferritin-based nanomedicine developed for targeted leukemia therapy

Researchers from the Institute of Process Engineering (IPE) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Peking University and Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University have developed a ferritin (Fn)-based nanomedicine for targeted delivery of arsenic (As) and efficient therapy against diverse leukemia types.