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206,261 articles from PhysOrg

Grooming behavior between dairy cows reveals complex social network

Like humans, cattle are social creatures with complex relationships that change as group dynamics evolve. A study published in Frontiers in Veterinary Science offered new insights into the social networking behavior of dairy cows, building on a body of research that could someday help reshape farm management practices to create healthier living environments for the animals.

Ancient shell llama offering found in lake Titicaca

A llama carved from a spondylus shell and a cylindrical laminated gold foil object were the contents of a carved stone box—an offering—found at the bottom of Lake Titicaca, according to researchers from Penn State and the Université libre de Bruxelles, Belgium. The offering, found near an island in the lake, was not located where others had found offerings in the past.

Malignant cancer diagnosed in a dinosaur for the first time

A collaboration led by the Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) and McMaster University has led to the discovery and diagnosis of an aggressive malignant bone cancer—an osteosarcoma—for the first time ever in a dinosaur. No malignant cancers (tumours that can spread throughout the body and have severe health implications) have ever been documented in dinosaurs previously. The paper was published August...


MONDAY 3. AUGUST 2020


Hydrogel paves way for biomedical breakthrough

Published in Advanced Functional Materials, a University of Sydney team of biomedical engineers has developed a plasma technology to robustly attach hydrogels—a jelly-like substance which is structurally similar to soft tissue in the human body—to polymeric materials, allowing manufactured devices to better interact with surrounding tissue.

New research sheds light on bargaining and the 'daily deal market'

If you've ever taken advantage of a nice discount thanks to a promotion from Groupon or LivingSocial, you've tapped the power of the daily deal market yourself. You, the consumer, benefited from the prior bargaining that took place between that big online platform and the merchant, resulting in a lower price for you.

NASA satellites show two views of California's Apple Fire

NASA's satellites were working overtime as they snapped pictures of the large Apple Fire in Banning Canyon near San Bernardino, California on Aug. 02, 2020. This fire began on July 31, 2020 and the cause of the fire is still under investigation. To date the fire has consumed 20,516 acres and is 5% contained.

Researchers discover how chlamydiae multiply in human cells

Chlamydia are bacteria that cause venereal diseases. In humans, they can only survive if they enter the cells. This is the only place where they find the necessary metabolites for their reproduction. And this happens in a relatively simple way: The bacteria create a small bubble in the cell and divide in it over several generations.

AI and single-cell genomics: New software predicts cell fate

Traditional single-cell sequencing methods help to reveal insights about cellular differences and functions—but they do this with static snapshots only rather than time-lapse films. This limitation makes it difficult to draw conclusions about the dynamics of cell development and gene activity. The recently introduced method 'RNA velocity' aims to reconstruct the developmental trajectory of a...

'Worst-case' CO2 emissions scenario is best for assessing climate risk and impacts to 2050

The RCP 8.5 CO2 emissions pathway, long considered a "worst case scenario" by the international science community, is the most appropriate for conducting assessments of climate change impacts by 2050, according to a new article published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The work was authored by Woods Hole Research Center (WHRC) Risk Program Director Dr. Christopher...

Your hair knows what you eat and how much your haircut costs

Millimeter by millimeter, your hair is building a record of your diet. As hair strands are built from amino acids that come from your food, they preserve the chemical traces of the protein in that food. It's a strong enough record to show whether you prefer veggie burgers or double bacon cheeseburgers.

Social bonds in adulthood don't mediate early life trauma

When baboons experience trauma in early life, they have higher levels of stress hormones in adulthood—a potential marker of poor health—than their peers who don't experience trauma, even if they have strong social relationships as adults, according to a study led by a University of Michigan researcher.

Anatomy of an acne treatment

Sarecycline, a drug approved for use in the United States in 2018, is the first new antibiotic approved to treat acne in more than 40 years. Now, researchers at Yale and the University of Illinois-Chicago have discovered how its unique chemical structure makes it effective.

Black hole fails to do its job

Astronomers have discovered what can happen when a giant black hole does not intervene in the life of a galaxy cluster. Using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes they have shown that passive black hole behavior may explain a remarkable torrent of star formation occurring in a distant cluster of galaxies.

ALMA captures stirred-up planet factory

Planet-forming environments can be much more complex and chaotic than previously expected. This is evidenced by a new image of the star RU Lup, made with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA).

NASA finds an eye and a giant 'tail' in Typhoon Hagupit

NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite provided forecasters with a visible image of Typhoon Hagupit in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean that showed the development of an eye as it quickly intensified. Imagery also showed a thick band of thunderstorms that resembled a giant tail, spiraling into the powerful storm.

Germany-wide rainfall measurements via the mobile network

Whether in flood early-warning systems or in agriculture—rainfall measurements are of great importance. However, there is a lack of accurate data for many regions in the world due to the fact that comprehensive measurements have so far been too expensive. This could change with a new method that has just passed its practical test. Researchers at KIT (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology) and the...

A giant crane from southern Germany

Researchers from Frankfurt and Tübingen say the skull of a very large crane found at the Hammerschmiede fossil site in Allgäu, Bavaria, is more than eleven million years old. It is the earliest evidence of such a large crane in Europe, the paleontologists say. The fossil most closely resembles the skull of today's long-beaked Siberian crane, according to Gerald Mayr of the Senckenberg Research...

Oriole hybridization is a dead end: study

A half-century of controversy over two popular bird species may have finally come to an end. In one corner: the Bullock's Oriole, found in the western half of North America. In the other corner: the Baltimore Oriole, breeding in the eastern half. Where their ranges meet in the Great Plains, the two mix freely and produce apparently healthy hybrid offspring. But according to scientists from the...

Lucy mission one step closer to the Trojan asteroids

NASA's Lucy mission, led by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), has achieved an important milestone by passing its System Integration Review and clearing the way for spacecraft assembly. This NASA Discovery Program class mission will be the first to explore Jupiter's Trojan asteroids, ancient small bodies that share an orbit with Jupiter and hold important insights to understanding the early...

Language may undermine women in science and tech

Despite decades of positive messaging to encourage women and girls to pursue education tracks and careers in STEM, women continue to fall far below their male counterparts in these fields. A new study at Carnegie Mellon University examined 25 languages to explore the gender stereotypes in language that undermine efforts to support equality across STEM career paths. The results are available in the...

Unequal neutron-star mergers create unique 'bang' in simulations

When two neutron stars slam together, the result is sometimes a black hole that swallows all but the gravitational evidence of the collision. However, in a series of simulations, an international team of researchers including a Penn State scientist determined that these typically quiet—at least in terms of radiation we can detect on Earth—collisions can sometimes be far noisier.

Drug discovery: First rational strategy to find molecular glue degraders

Despite enormous efforts to advance traditional pharmacology approaches, more than three quarters of all human proteins remain beyond the reach of therapeutic development. Targeted protein degradation (TPD) is a novel approach that could overcome this and other limitations, and thus represents a promising therapeutic strategy. TPD is based on small molecules, generally called 'degraders,' which...

Diverse amyloid structures and dynamics revealed by high-speed atomic force microscopy

In the human body, proteins sometimes occur in fibrillar aggregates called amyloids. Although certain amyloids are known to have a biological function, amyloid formation is often associated with pathologies, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Understanding how exactly amyloid fibrils form is crucial for gaining insights into the development of such diseases and for advancing with...

Evaluating the effectiveness of travel bans

With the reopening of flights during the summer holiday season in Europe, many countries have started to see an increase in COVID-19 infections. A new IIASA-led study sheds light on how COVID-19 spreads regionally and between countries, as well as on how effective governmental measures to curb the spread of the pandemic have been to date.

Light shines on chemical production method

A team of researchers from Japan has demonstrated a light-based reaction that yields high numbers of the base chemical component required to produce bioactive compounds used in common industry products. They published their results on June 11 in Organic Letters.

Mathematical modeling reveals how chitinase, a molecular monorail, obeys a one-way sign

A novel mathematical modeling method has been developed to estimate operation models of biomolecular motors from single-molecule imaging data of motion with the Bayesian inference framework. The operation mechanism of a linear molecular motor "chitinase," which moves one-way on a chitin chain with degrading the chain passed by, was elucidated by mathematical modeling of experimental imaging data...

Cells relax their membrane to control protein sorting

The tension in the outer membrane of cells plays an important role in a number of biological processes. A localized drop in tension, for example, makes it easier for the surface bend inward and form invaginations that will become free vesicles inside the cell. These are delimited by a membrane that contains all proteins originally present in the invaginations. A fundamental function of these...

Iron-rich meteorites show record of core crystallization in system's oldest planetesimals

New work led by Carnegie's Peng Ni and Anat Shahar uncovers new details about our Solar System's oldest planetary objects, which broke apart in long-ago collisions to form iron-rich meteorites. Their findings reveal that the distinct chemical signatures of these meteorites can be explained by the process of core crystallization in their parent bodies, deepening our understanding of the...