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225,310 articles from PhysOrg

Berkeley Lab's CAMERA leads international effort on autonomous scientific discoveries

Experimental facilities around the globe are facing a challenge: their instruments are becoming increasingly powerful, leading to a steady increase in the volume and complexity of the scientific data they collect. At the same time, these tools demand new, advanced algorithms to take advantage of these capabilities and enable ever-more intricate scientific questions to be asked—and answered. For...

Automatically steering experiments toward scientific discovery

In the popular view of traditional science, scientists are in the lab hovering over their experiments, micromanaging every little detail. For example, they may iteratively test a wide variety of material compositions, synthesis and processing protocols, and environmental conditions to see how these parameters influence material properties. In each iteration, they analyze the collected data,...

Common floral bacteria can induce pollen germination

Certain species of floral bacteria can enhance pollen germination, according to a study published today from the University of California, Davis in the journal Current Biology."This is the first paper documenting stimulation of pollen germination by non-plants," said first author Shawn Christensen, a doctoral candidate in associate professor Rachel Vannette's laboratory in the Department of...

Non-linear effects in coupled optical microcavities

Scientists from the Faculty of Physics of the University of Warsaw have demonstrated exciton-polariton lasing and parametric scattering of exciton-polaritons in a system of coupled optical microcavities. The results have been published in the prestigious journal Nanophotonics.

Exploring blood types of Neanderthal and Denisovan individuals

An analysis of the blood types of one Denisovan and three Neanderthal individuals has uncovered new clues to the evolutionary history, health, and vulnerabilities of their populations. Silvana Condemi of the Centre National de la Research Scientifique (CNRS) and colleagues at Aix-Marseille University, France, present hese findings in the open-access journal PLOS ONE on July 28, 2021.

Molecular atlas reveals how brain cells develop

As the fertilized egg divides, initially undifferentiated cells take on specific functions, becoming more distinct as different tissues and organs emerge. Understanding how hundreds of disparate cell types arise has proven difficult, largely because scientists have lacked the technologies to capture cellular decision making over time.

Water as a metal

Under normal conditions, pure water is an almost perfect insulator. Water only develops metallic properties under extreme pressure, such as exists deep inside of large planets. Now, an international collaboration has used a completely different approach to produce metallic water and documented the phase transition at BESSY II. The study is published now in Nature.

Double-strand RNA exhibits traits different from single-stranded RNA

Messenger RNA, or mRNA, has been in the news recently as a crucial component of the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines. The nucleic acid looks, for all intents and purposes, like a strand of DNA that has been sliced the long way. It's what's known as single-stranded RNA (ssRNA), and it can be found throughout the natural world.

New findings on the function of mitofusin 2 in the cellular energy metabolism

Mitofusin 2 is a key protein in the regulation of the physiology of mitochondria—cellular organelles that produce energy—involved in several neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, as well as in cancer. Now, a study published in the journal EMBO Reports reveals that the regulation of the bioenergetic activity in the mitochondria requires mitofusin 2 to be found in the endoplasmic...

Social media study guides risk-reduction videogame for Black teen girls

To support the development of a multiplayer risk-reduction videogame for Black teen girls, researchers at Yale conducted a study that sheds light on the social media habits of these teens in evaluating and choosing potential romantic partners. The results were published in the July 24 issue of Social Media & Society.

Developing probiotic beverages without animal protein

Most products enriched with probiotics and protein are made with dairy products. However, consumer demand for plant protein is growing. The nutritional value of these proteins must therefore be improved to be comparable to that of animal proteins.

A reversible male contraceptive, targeted to the testes with magnets

Women have several choices for long-lasting, reversible contraceptives, but most options for men are either single-use, such as condoms, or difficult to reverse, like vasectomies. Now, in a step toward a safe, long-lasting and reversible male contraceptive, researchers reporting in ACS' Nano Letters have developed magnetic, biodegradable nanomaterials that reduced the likelihood of mice fathering...

Chaotic electrons heed 'limit' in strange metals

Electrons in metals try to behave like obedient motorists, but they end up more like bumper cars. They may be reckless drivers, but a new Cornell-led study confirms this chaos has a limit established by the laws of quantum mechanics.

Man's new best friend: What cats can teach us about human genetics and precision medicine

Although cats have lived alongside humans for millennia, it remains a dogs' world. This bias has historically bled into science as well. It's time for cats to get their day, argues veterinary medicine expert Leslie Lyons in a Forum published July 28 in the journal Trends in Genetics. Cats, she says, have the potential to be a valuable model organism for geneticists, as the feline genome is ordered...

Superconductivity in high-Tc cuprates: 'From maximal to minimal dissipation'—a new paradigm?

Researchers from the University of Bristol's School of Physics used some of Europe's strongest continuous magnetic fields to uncover evidence of exotic charge carriers in the metallic state of copper-oxide high-temperature superconductors (high-Tc cuprates). Their results have been published this week in Nature. In a related publication in SciPost Physics last week, the team postulated that it is...

First detection of light from behind a black hole

Watching X-rays flung out into the universe by the supermassive black hole at the center of a galaxy 800 million light-years away, Stanford University astrophysicist Dan Wilkins noticed an intriguing pattern. He observed a series of bright flares of X-rays—exciting, but not unprecedented—and then, the telescopes recorded something unexpected: additional flashes of X-rays that were smaller,...

A caffeine buzz helps bees learn to find specific flowers

There's nothing like a shot of espresso when you need to get some studying done—and now, it seems like bees learn better with a jolt of their favorite caffeine-laced nectar, too. In a paper published July 28 in the journal Current Biology, researchers have shown that feeding bumble bees caffeine helps them better remember the smell of a specific flower with nectar inside. While previous studies...

National parochialism widespread, worldwide

In our globalized world, cooperation between citizens of different countries should actually be a matter of course. But around the world, people prefer to cooperate with their own fellow citizens rather than with foreigners. This was the result of a study by an international team of researchers led by Angelo Romano and Matthias Sutter from the Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods.

From chemical graphs to structures

3D configurations of atoms dictate all materials properties. Quantitative predictions of accurate equilibrium structures, 3D coordinates of all atoms, from a chemical graph, a representation of the structural formula, is a challenging and computationally expensive task which is at the beginning of practically every computational chemistry workflow. Researchers at the University of Vienna have now...

COVID-19-related xenophobia

A lot of entirely unwarranted anti-Asian sentiment in the U.S. and elsewhere has emerged on social media since the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, which had its original source in Wuhan, China, but is a global problem we all must face. Researchers from China and the U.S. have investigated how this xenophobia can be classified on one particularly prominent social media platform, Twitter, with a...

Magnetic fields implicated in the mysterious midlife crisis of stars

Middle-aged stars can experience their own kind of midlife crisis, experiencing dramatic breaks in their activity and rotation rates at about the same age as our Sun, according to new research published today in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters. The study provides a new theoretical underpinning for the unexplained breakdown of established techniques for measuring ages of...