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277,058 articles from PhysOrg

Proba-3's laser-precise positioning

An infrared view of a laser-based test campaign—taking place at Redwire Space in Kruibeke, Belgium—which represents crucial preparation for ESA's precision formation flying mission, Proba-3.

Adhesives from feathers

Adhesives are almost always based on fossil raw materials such as petroleum. Researchers at Fraunhofer have recently developed a process that allows to utilize keratin for this purpose. This highly versatile protein compound can be found, for instance, in chicken feathers. Not only can it be used to manufacture a host of different adhesives for a variety of applications, but the processes and end...

Hubble captures dense globular cluster NGC 1841

This densely populated group of stars is the globular cluster NGC 1841, which is part of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), a satellite galaxy of our Milky Way galaxy that lies about 162,000 light-years away. Satellite galaxies are bound by gravity in orbits around a more massive host galaxy.

Canine teeth reveal new keys to sex estimation in human populations

The Dental Anthropology Group at the Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre la Evolución Humana (CENIEH) has published a paper in the American Journal of Biological Anthropology on the morphological differences between the canines of men and women, underlining their importance in the creation of biological profiles.

How signaling proteins get to the mitochondrial surface

Mitochondria are organelles that are known for providing the energy currency that fuels chemical reactions within cells, but they are also involved in other important processes vital for cell health including the innate immune response to pathogens like viruses, programmed cell death, and communication with the rest of the cell—processes that all play a role in health and disease. The signaling...

Lianas, trees show varied stem xylem structure-function link

The xylem of the plant stem performs several important functions. Elucidating the coordination or trade-offs between xylem functions is critical for understanding plant ecological strategy and adaptation to different environments. However, how xylem cell tissues influence their functions among different growth forms remains unresolved.

Unraveling the structural dynamics of photosystem II with femtosecond X-ray crystallography

Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the phenomenon of photosynthesis can enable significant progress in the fields of biotechnology and renewable energy. Photosystem II (PSII), a protein complex, plays a central role in this process by catalyzing the oxidation of water and producing dioxygen using sunlight, a fundamental step in oxygenic photosynthesis. Despite extensive research,...

Study shows glacier shrinkage is causing a 'green transition'

Glacier-fed streams are undergoing a process of profound change, according to EPFL and Charles University scientists in a paper appearing in Nature Geoscience today. This conclusion is based on the expeditions to the world's major mountain ranges by members of the Vanishing Glaciers project.

Producing quantum materials with precision, with the help of AI

A team of NUS researchers led by Associate Professor Lu Jiong from the Department of Chemistry and Institute for Functional Intelligent Materials, together with their international collaborators, have developed a novel concept of a chemist-intuited atomic robotic probe (CARP).

AI technique promotes green hydrogen production using more abundant chemical elements

A NIMS research team has developed an AI technique capable of expediting the identification of materials with desirable characteristics. Using this technique, the team was able to discover high-performance water electrolyzer electrode materials free of platinum-group elements—substances previously thought to be indispensable in water electrolysis. These materials may be used to reduce the cost...

New study unveils unique roles of yeast protein complexes in cellular lifespan

Assistant Professor Takahiro Kosugi from the Institute for Molecular Science, assistant Professor Yoshiaki Kamada at the National Institute for Basic Biology, and colleagues have developed an advanced molecular cell biology approach by integrating computational redesigning of protein complexes based on the predicted three-dimensional structure in yeast genetics.

How cell structure can lead to health issues

Human bodies make 2 million red blood cells per second. They each live for 120 days and spend that time zooming completely around the body every 20 seconds, carrying oxygen from the lungs to other tissues and bringing back carbon dioxide that is exhaled.

Researchers use GPS-tracked icebergs in novel study to improve climate models

Over the last four decades, warming climate and ocean temperatures have rapidly altered the Greenland Ice Sheet, creating concern for marine ecosystems and weather patterns worldwide. The environment has challenged scientists in their attempts to measure how water moves around and melts the ice sheet because equipment can be destroyed by icebergs floating near the glaciers.

The role of history in how efficient color names evolve

Suppose two speakers of the same language are playing a guessing game where each has the same color swatches, and Player 1 tries to get Player 2 to guess a hue by naming the color. If the second player consistently guesses correctly as often as possible, that indicates their language has an efficient color naming system.

It's not only opposites that attract: New study shows like-charged particles can come together

"Opposites charges attract; like charges repel" is a fundamental principle of basic physics. But a new study from Oxford University, published today in Nature Nanotechnology, has demonstrated that similarly charged particles in solution can in fact attract each other over long distances. Just as surprisingly, the team found that the effect is different for positively and negatively charged...

Brown bears digging up artificial forests, study shows

Brown bears foraging for food in the Shiretoko Peninsula of Hokkaido, Japan, have been disrupting tree growth in artificial conifer forests, according to a new study published in Ecology. Researchers compared soil and tree samples from human-forested plots with samples from natural forests. They found that the bears' digging for cicada nymphs damaged tree roots and altered the nitrogen content of...


Ultra-compact head-mounted fluorescence microscopes for neuroscience studies

Research groups led by Prof. Bi Guoqiang, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), and Prof. Zhou Pengcheng from Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology of Chinese Academy of Chinese proposed a design for ultra-compact head-mounted fluorescence microscopes, which were applied to neuro observations. The study was published in National Science Review.

Investigating cell killers: An advanced system for size-dependent cytotoxicity analysis of silica

Metal nanomaterials have become an indispensable part of industrial and medical fields due to their unique and versatile properties. Their size, which imparts them with the desired physiochemical properties, is also the reason for environmental and health concerns. The nano-sized particles in nanomaterials have shown high reactivity towards biomolecules and often even toxicity towards biological...

Hydrogel spheres compose a microporous structure for localized mRNA delivery

In a significant leap forward in the realm of regenerative medicine, a team at the Terasaki Institute for Biomedical Innovation has introduced a pioneering approach to mRNA therapy using microspheres made of gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA)—a gelatin-based polymer that can form strong hydrogels when exposed to UV light—to form microporous structure.

Conduction-cooled accelerating cavity proves feasible for commercial applications

From televisions to X-ray machines, many modern technologies are enabled by electrons that have been juiced up by a particle accelerator. Now, the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has worked with General Atomics and other partners to unlock even more applications by exploring the process of designing, prototyping and testing particle accelerators that are...