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234,126 articles from PhysOrg

Shifting ocean closures best way to protect animals from accidental catch

Accidentally trapping sharks, seabirds, marine mammals, sea turtles and other animals in fishing gear is one of the biggest barriers to making fisheries more sustainable around the world. Marine protected areas—sections of the ocean set aside to conserve biodiversity—are used, in part, to reduce the unintentional catch of such animals, among other conservation goals.

Earth BioGenome Project begins genome sequencing in earnest

A global effort to map the genomes of all plants, animals, fungi and other microbial life on Earth, is entering a new phase as it moves from pilot projects to full-scale production sequencing. This new phase of the The Earth BioGenome Project, or EBP, is marked with a collection of papers published this week in Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences, describing the project's goals,...

Newly discovered carbon may yield clues to ancient Mars

NASA's Curiosity rover landed on Mars on Aug. 6, 2012, and since then has roamed Gale Crater taking samples and sending the results back home for researchers to interpret. Analysis of carbon isotopes in sediment samples taken from half a dozen exposed locations, including an exposed cliff, leave researchers with three plausible explanations for the carbon's origin—cosmic dust, ultraviolet...

Terrorists who use the internet are less successful

There is too much focus on online radicalisation, says Joe Whittaker, when this is just one of the factors that make someone become a terrorist. In fact, Whittaker's research shows that terrorists who use the internet are less successful in achieving their goal than those who stay offline. He will defend his dissertation on 19 January.

Palomar survey instrument analyzes impact of Starlink satellites

Since 2019, SpaceX has been launching an increasing number of internet satellites into orbit around Earth. The satellite constellation, called Starlink, now includes nearly 1,800 members orbiting at altitudes of about 550 kilometers. Astronomers have expressed concerns that that these objects, which can appear as streaks in telescope images, could hamper their scientific observations.

Fish stocks fluctuate with seawater temperature

Year-to-year fluctuations in seawater temperature are partly responsible for the much slower ups and downs in the abundance of marine fish stocks. This is the conclusion from a worldwide study by Wageningen University & Research, among others. Fish biologists have observed slow fluctuations in fish stocks for centuries, but the causes remained largely unclear. This study shows that fluctuations on...

Rare observation of a female blanket octopus in the wild

Marine biologist, photographer and videographer Jacinta Shackleton, has posted a video on Instagram of a female blanket octopus (with its psychedelic cape on full display) she came across earlier this month while snorkeling in the Great Barrier Reef. In her post, she notes that the blanket octopus is very rarely seen because it normally spends its time out in the open ocean.

Improving reading skills through action video games

What if video games, instead of being an obstacle to literacy, could actually help children improve their reading abilities? A team from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) has joined forces with scientists from the University of Trento in Italy to test an action video game for children, which would enhance reading skills. The results, published in the journal Nature Human Behaviour, demonstrate...

Study finds national and international frameworks are imperative for implementing nature-based solutions in Asia

Recognized by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the term "nature-based solutions" (NbS) refers to those that bring together human well-being, environmental sustainability and biodiversity benefits. NbS are also key elements to post-COVID-19 pandemic recovery strategies. NbS include a variety of elements, starting...

Image: Rolling stones on Mars

There's more to this image of Mars than first meets the eye: nestled in the detail of the cliff face that cuts through this scene are signs of geology in motion. Zooming in reveals several boulders that have fallen from the cliff edge, leaving small dimples in the soft material as they tumbled down-slope.

Low-temperature DeNOx catalyst for reducing ultrafine particle emission

Recently, there has been growing demand for DeNOx catalysts that can treat nitrogen oxides (NOx) at low temperatures to increase energy efficiency when processing flue gas in industrial combustion facilities. NOx are emitted during the combustion of fossil fuels and are the leading cause of ultrafine particles (UFPs) formed via chemical reactions in the atmosphere.

Inciting instead of coercing: "Nudges" prove their effectiveness

Developed by the American economist Richard Thaler in the late 2000s, the theory behind "nudging" theory is based on the principle that our choices are not only determined by our ability to reason, but are also influenced by certain biases such as our emotions, our memories, the opinions of others or the configuration of our environment. Focusing on these elements can therefore be more effective...

New study finds stream restorations increase home values

A new coat of paint and some nice shrubs are common ways to add curb appeal and, potentially, value to your home. New research from the College of Agriculture, Health and Natural Resources finds that some less common fixes could also help homeowners increase their bottom line.

If the US and China quarrel, the planet suffers, author says

Sophia Kalantzakos' scholarship focuses on how the climate crisis impacts global power politics. Her book China and the Geopolitics of Rare Earths, focuses on resource competition between the major industrial nations (U.S., E.U., Japan) and China. In this interview with Via Sarfatti25, Kalantzakos warns that the era of hyper-competition particularly between the U.S. and China will negatively...

Study: Basic income would not reduce people's willingness to work

A basic income would not necessarily mean that people would work less. This is the conclusion of a series of behavioral experiments by cognitive psychologist Fenna Poletiek, social psychologist Erik de Kwaadsteniet and cognitive psychologist Bastiaan Vuyk. They also found indications that people with a basic income are more likely to find a job that suits them better.

Molecular mechanism involved in the cholesterol cell transport

A team of the University of Barcelona (UB) and the August Pi i Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBAPS) identified a mechanism involved in the movement of cholesterol inside the cells. The study, published in the Journal of Cell Biology, shows how the SNX13 protein plays a key role when transporting this lipid outside the liposomes, organelles that conduct cellular digestion. These results...

Chal­lenging the the­ory of the nar­row host range of phages

Viruses that infect bacteria could one day replace antibiotics because they precisely attack only specific pathogens. Researchers at ETH Zurich are now showing that this is not always the case. This new finding is important because bacterial viruses can transfer antibiotic resistance genes.

Tracing the origins of plants in West African cuisine

A team of scientists, led by the University of Bristol, in co-operation with colleagues from Goethe University, Frankfurt, has uncovered the first insights into the origins of West African plant-based cuisine, locked inside pottery fragments dating back some 3,500 years ago.

Fighting weeds in a changing world

The world is warming. And fast. By 2050, it's likely the planet will have warmed by about 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit compared to before the Industrial Revolution. That warming brings substantial changes. Storms will be stronger. People will run their air conditioners more. It will even change when and where our crops grow—and how well they perform.

Huge Tonga volcanic eruption caused 'significant damage'

A massive volcanic eruption in Tonga that triggered tsunami waves around the Pacific caused "significant damage" to the island nation's capital and smothered it in dust, but the full extent was unclear with communications still hampered Monday.

Dimming Sun's rays should be off-limits, say experts

Planetary-scale engineering schemes designed to cool Earth's surface and lessen the impact of global heating are potentially dangerous and should be blocked by governments, more than 60 policy experts and scientists said on Monday.