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210,066 articles from PhysOrg

Driver of the largest mass extinction in the history of the Earth identified

Life on Earth has a long, but also an extremely turbulent history. On more than one occasion, the majority of all species became extinct and an already highly developed biodiversity shrank to a minimum again, changing the course of evolution each time. The most extensive mass extinction took place about 252 million years ago. It marked the end of the Permian Epoch and the beginning of the Triassic...

Proteomic profiling reveals innovation potential of new antibiotics

The fight against bacterial infections, especially those caused by resistant pathogens, is in full swing with the search for new antibiotic agents. The aim is to identify substances that attack the pathogens in a truly novel way. The team at the Center for Systems-Based Antibiotic Research (Cesar) at Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB) has described in two publications how assess if a new antibiotic...

A new bacteria from diseased walnut discovered in Portugal

Bacteria recently isolated from walnut (Juglans regia L.) buds in Portugal has been identified as a new species of Xanthomonas. Interestingly, this new species, named Xanthomonas euroxanthea, includes both pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains on walnut, constituting a unique model to address the emergence and evolution of pathogenicity in Xanthomonas. This discovery resulted from an international...

Trees bring benefits to society, regardless of their origin

Trees planted in urban spaces provide a multitude of ecosystem services: they reduce air pollution and noise, provide habitat and shelter for other species, and reduce erosion during heavy rains. They also offer opportunities for relaxation, attenuate urban heat islands and contribute both to landscapes and a sense of place. At the same time, trees can be a source of allergens, generate...

Biochar helps hold water, saves money

The abstract benefits of biochar for long-term storage of carbon and nitrogen on American farms are clear, and now new research from Rice University shows a short-term, concrete bonus for farmers as well.

Food waste: Cities can make the difference

Food waste is one of the most important issues of current food systems: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has estimated that more than one third of food is either lost or wasted along the entire food supply chain causing significant economic, social and environmental impacts.

Scientists improve model of landslide-induced tsunami

MIPT researchers Leopold Lobkovsky and Raissa Mazova, and their young colleagues from Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University have created a model of landslide-induced tsunamis that accounts for the initial location of the landslide body. Reported in Landslides, the model reveals that tsunami height is affected by the coastal slope and the position of the land mass before slipping. The highest...

High social and ecological standards for chocolate

Worldwide demand for food from the tropics that meets higher environmental and social standards has risen sharply in recent years. Consumers often have to make ethically questionable decisions: products may be available to the global market through child labor, starvation wages or environmental destruction. Building on an interdisciplinary project in Peru, an international research team with the...

Oldest securely dated evidence for a river flowing through the Thar Desert, Western India

Using luminescence dating of ancient river sediments, a new study published in Quaternary Science Reviews presents evidence for river activity at Nal Quarry in the central Thar Desert starting from approx. 173 thousand years ago. These findings represent the oldest directly dated phase of river activity in the region and indicate Stone Age populations lived in a distinctly different Thar Desert...

New insight brings sustainable hydrogen one step closer

Leiden chemists Marc Koper and Ian McCrum have discovered that the degree to which a metal binds to the oxygen atom of water is decisive for how well the chemical conversion of water to molecular hydrogen takes place. This insight helps to develop better catalysts for the production of sustainable hydrogen, an important raw material for the chemical industry and the fuel needed for environmentally...

Researching the chips of the future

The chips of the future will include photonics and electronics; they will have bandwidth, speed and processing and computing abilities that are currently unthinkable; they will make it possible to integrate many other components, and their capabilities will increase exponentially compared to electronic chips. In all, they will be essential in many fields; they will bring us a little closer, for...

Showcasing successful women's STEM achievements, a social vaccine against gender stereotypes

According to data published by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), female participation in the labor market has risen over the past 35 years, with women now accounting for 52.5% of the total workforce. Despite this increase, gender equality in the workplace is still far from a reality. In traditionally male-dominated fields, such as those known by the STEM acronym...

Advancing wildlife genomics through the development of molecular methods

A team of scientists from the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (Leibniz-IZW), the Australian Museum and the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC) report a new method for identifying any genome sequence located next to a known sequence. It is often difficult to precisely determine unknown sequences close to small known fragments. Whole genome sequencing can be a solution,...

Baculum study suggests its complexity is related to monogamous behavior

A trio of researchers from Manchester Metropolitan University, the University of Manchester and the University of Liverpool, respectively, has found an association between mammals with more highly complex baculum and monogamous sexual relationships. In their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, Charlotte Brassey, Julia Behnsen and James Gardiner describe performing 3-D X-ray...

AI methods of analysing social networks find new cell types in tissue

In situ sequencing enables gene activity inside body tissues to be depicted in microscope images. To facilitate interpretation of the vast quantities of information generated, Uppsala University researchers have now developed an entirely new method of image analysis. Based on algorithms used in artificial intelligence, the method was originally devised to enhance understanding of social networks....

High pressure is key for better optical fibers

Optical fiber data transmission can be significantly improved by producing the fibers, made of silica glass, under high pressure, researchers from Japan and the US report in the journal npj Computational Materials.

Scientists encapsulate quantum dots in salt

It's widely known that submerging a pared apple in saltwater prevents oxidation and browning, but did you know that saltwater can also protect fragile quantum dot (QD) materials? A research team led by Prof. Chen Hsueh-Shih of the Department of Materials Science & Engineering at National Tsing Hua University in Taiwan has recently developed the world's first inkjet technique for using saltwater to...

One in six historic resources in Colorado is in a floodplain

Colorado has lost several of its important historic landmarks to disasters. The 2013 floods, for instance, destroyed a WPA-era shelter in Lyons and severely damaged the town's historic library. In the aftermath of these events, many Colorado communities asked whether they were adequately prepared to protect their history in the face of increasingly severe floods and wildfires.

Study shows that restoration of peatlands can reduce impacts of climate change

An international study published in Environmental Research Letters has found further evidence that conservation and restoration of boreal peatlands could be an important tool to mitigate climate change impacts in the north. The Dal Science team, led by Manuel Helbig has found that conservation and restoration of peatlands can fight climate warming both globally and regionally.

New dating results for two Lower Palaeolithic sites in France

A study published in the journal Quaternary International, led by Dr. Mathieu Duval, Ramón y Cajal Research Fellow at the Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre la Evolución Humana (CENIEH), dates two Lower Paleolithic sites in France based on the use of an unprecedented combination of three dating techniques: electron spin resonance (ESR), luminescence and palaeomagnetism.

How fracking plans could affect shared water resources in southern Africa

Recently, news reports revealed plans by a Canadian oil and gas company, ReconAfrica, to explore for oil and gas in some of Africa's most sensitive protected areas. These areas include the Namibian headwaters of the Okavango delta and a world heritage site, Tsodilo Hills, in Botswana. Plans are afoot to explore inside the Kavango-Zambezi transfrontier conservation area.

Spacecraft design could get to Titan in only 2 years using a direct fusion drive

Fusion power is the technology that is 30 years away, and always will be, according to skeptics, at least. Despite its difficult transition into a reliable power source, the nuclear reactions that power the sun have a wide variety of uses in other fields. The most obvious is in weapons; hydrogen bombs are to this day the most powerful weapons we have ever produced. But there's another use case...

Political posts causing social media fatigue for many Americans

The 2020 general election is right around the corner and the political climate is heating up. Although Americans have relied on social media as a source of personal connectivity, many are choosing to tune out due to fatigue caused by unwanted and unsolicited political coverage and commentary that is now dominating their feeds.


SUNDAY 18. OCTOBER 2020