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203,184 articles from PhysOrg

Summer forage capabilities of tepary bean and guar in the southern great plains

Perennial warm-season grasses do not provide high-quality forage during mid to late-summer, which limits yearling stocker cattle from maintaining high rates of growth in the Southern Great Plains. This shortage has resulted in a continual search by researchers for annual legumes that can provide sufficient amounts of nutritious forage during August through September.


A potential explanation for urban smog: Aerosol particle growth higher in cold climates

The effect of nitric acid on aerosol particles in the atmosphere may offer an explanation for the smog seen engulfing cities on frosty days. Under laboratory conditions, researchers at CERN in Switzerland observed the formation of atmospheric aerosols and discovered new information on the link between nitrogen oxides originating in traffic and the energy industry, and the climate and air quality....

Artificial intelligence reveals mechanism for kin selection in a wild primate

More like mom or dad? Human babies always get this curious look on their face combined with the question whom the child resembles most. The answers vary depending on the degree of kinship, gender and the time of assessment. Mandrills, monkeys living in Equatorial Africa, may recognize facial features coding relatedness better than humans. Scientists at the German Primate Center—Leibniz Institute...

Exploring the use of 'stretchable' words in social media

An investigation of Twitter messages reveals new insights and tools for studying how people use stretched words, such as "duuuuude," "heyyyyy," or "noooooooo." Tyler Gray and colleagues at the University of Vermont in Burlington present these findings in the open-access journal PLOS ONE on May 27, 2020.

Study shows erosion of ozone layer responsible for mass extinction event

Researchers at the University of Southampton have shown that an extinction event 360 million years ago, that killed much of the Earth's plant and freshwater aquatic life, was caused by a brief breakdown of the ozone layer that shields the Earth from damaging ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This is a newly discovered extinction mechanism with profound implications for our warming world today.

Researchers use whole living cells as 'templates' to seek for bioactive molecules

A study performed by researchers at the Institute for Advanced Chemistry of Catalonia (IQAC) from the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) pioneers the use of whole living cells (human lung adenocarcinoma) in dynamic combinatorial chemistry systems. This research, published in the journal Angewandte Chemie International Edition, proposes a new methodology to discover new bioactive molecules in...

Public parks guaranteeing sustainable well-being

An international team led by the University of Geneva (UNIGE) has ascertained how green spaces contribute to the well-being of city-dwellers. The research shows that parks play an essential role in the well-being of individuals, regardless of their social class, and that they cannot be replaced by other venues where people meet, such as shopping centers. When these parks are closed—as during the...

SpaceX on cusp of launching astronauts, back on home turf

With bad weather threatening a delay, two NASA astronauts suited up for the launch of a SpaceX rocket ship Wednesday on a history-making flight to the International Space Station that was seen as a giant leap forward for the booming business of commercial space travel.

Researchers take a cue from nature to create bulletproof coatings

Shrimp, lobsters and mushrooms may not seem like great tools for the battlefield, but three engineers from the University of Houston are using chitin—a derivative of glucose found in the cellular walls of arthropods and fungi—and 3-D printing techniques to produce high-impact multilayered coatings that can protect soldiers against bullets, lasers, toxic gas and other dangers.

Airborne science discovers complex geomorphic controls on Bornean forests

Tropical forests contain some of the most biodiverse and dynamic ecosystems in the world. Environmental conditions such as precipitation, temperature, and soils shape the biota of the landscape. This influence is especially noticeable when comparing the towering trees found in low elevation forests to the hardier, shorter ones found at the top of tropical mountains. Together, these factors create...

Oxygen-excess oxides in Earth's mid-mantle facilitate the ascent of deep oxygen

Subduction of hydrous materials imposes great influence on the structure, dynamics, and evolution of our planet. However, it is largely unclear how subducting slabs chemically interact with the middle mantle. Recently, an oxygen-excess phase (Mg,Fe)2O3+δ was discovered under conditions similar to the Earth's middle mantle (~1000-2000 km) by a team of scientists from the Center of High Pressure...

Extraction of skin interstitial fluid using microneedle patches

Interstitial fluid is a major component of the liquid environment in the body and fills the spaces between the body's cells. In contrast, blood circulates only within the circulatory vessels of the body and is composed of blood cells and the liquid part of the blood, plasma. Both fluids contain special components called biomarkers, which are valuable indicators of bodily health. These biomarkers...

A (much) earlier birth date for tectonic plates

Yale geophysicists reported that Earth's ever-shifting, underground network of tectonic plates was firmly in place more than 4 billion years ago—at least a billion years earlier than scientists generally thought.

Avalanche photodiode breaks performance record for LiDAR receivers

Electrical and computer engineers at the University of Virginia and University of Texas-Austin have developed an avalanche photodiode that achieved record performance and has the potential to transform next generation night-vision imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) receivers. For LiDAR, the team's low-noise, two-micrometer avalanche photodiode enables higher-power operation that is...

Tuning the surface gives variations to metal foils

Just as cloning in biology allows for the creation of one or more replicas of the exact same genes, seeded growth in chemistry can produce a very large metal foil with the exact same surface texture as that of a seeded one. Seeded growth is very popular in synthesizing three-dimensional (3-D) single crystals: 3-D crystals are always grown into the same shapes, just as salts are invariably cubic...

The relationships between forests, deforestation and infectious disease emergence

The global COVID-19 pandemic has shed light on the importance of certain previously little-studied scientific areas such as the relationships between ecosystems, their biodiversity and the emergence of new infectious diseases. Humans are making increasing use of their environment and so they are more exposed to certain microbes lurking in the shadows, a situation that may heighten the risk of new...

Medicinal chemistry breakthrough could lead to better pharmaceuticals

Medications are developed to work well for most people, but those whose genetic makeup causes them to metabolize medicine too quickly often need higher doses of the drugs they take in order for them to be effective. For others, the metabolism process can create toxic byproducts, often leading to unpleasant side effects.

New type of coupled electronic-structural waves discovered in magnetite

An international team of scientists uncovered exotic quantum properties hidden in magnetite, the oldest magnetic material known to mankind. The study reveals the existence of low-energy waves that indicate the important role of electronic interactions with the crystal lattice. This is another step toward fully understanding the metal-insulator phase transition mechanism in magnetite, and in...

Researchers trigger enzymes with light

Enzymes are the central drivers for biochemical metabolic processes in every living cell, enabling reactions to take place efficiently. It is this ability that makes them useful as catalysts in biotechnology, for example, to create chemical products such as pharmaceutics. A topic that is currently being widely discussed is photoinduced catalysis, in which researchers harness the ability to start...

Human activity threatens billions of years of evolutionary history

A ZSL study published in Nature Communications today maps the evolutionary history of the world's terrestrial vertebrates—amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles—for the first time, exploring how areas with large concentrations of evolutionarily distinct and threatened species are being impacted by our ever-increasing 'human footprint'.

The costly collateral damage from Elon Musk's Starlink satellite fleet

A colossal chess game of immense consequences is being fought in outer space, right now. On March 18 and April 22 2020, two rockets from SpaceX, owned by billionaire Elon Musk, each put 60 satellites into orbit. Those launches are but the sixth and seventh in a series intended to rapidly make 1,584 satellites available.

Safeguarding the source of three of Asia's great rivers

It is official. Everything is on track for the establishment of the Three-Rivers-Source National Park (TRSNP) in China, which—as its name suggests—protects the source of three of Asia's greatest rivers: the Yangtze, Yellow and Lancang-Mekong rivers.

New approach to metabolomics research could prove game changer

Accurate identification of metabolites, and other small chemicals, in biological and environmental samples has historically fallen short when using traditional methods. Conventional tactics rely on pure reference compounds, called standards, to recognize the same molecules in complex samples. These approaches are limited by the availability of the pure chemicals that are used as the standards.

Quantum simulators for gauge theories

To simulate in a laboratory what happens in particle accelerators has been an ambitious goal in the study of the fundamental forces of nature pursued by high-energy physicists for many years. Now, thanks to research conducted by the groups of statistical physics of SISSA—Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati and the "Abdus Salam" International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP),...