Collaborative research could help fine-tune the production of antimalarials, chemo drugs
219,789 articles from PhysOrg
Canada to hasten efforts to reduce carbon footprint: report
Much of common pharmaceutical development today is the product of laborious cycles of tweaking and optimization. In each drug, a carefully concocted formula of natural and synthetic enzymes and ingredients works together to catalyze a desired reaction. But in early development, much of the process is spent determining what quantities of each enzyme to use to ensure a reaction occurs at a specific...
Warming seas might also look less colorful to some fish. Here's why that matters.
Prime Minister Justin Trudeau will announce stepped up efforts to reduce Canada's carbon footprint when he meets other world leaders at a virtual climate summit hosted by US President Joe Biden this week, a media report said Wednesday.
Why climate change is driving some to skip having kids
When marine biologist Eleanor Caves of the University of Exeter thinks back to her first scuba dives, one of the first things she recalls noticing is that colors seem off underwater. The vivid reds, oranges, purples and yellows she was used to seeing in the sunlit waters near the surface look increasingly dim and drab with depth, and before long the whole ocean loses most of its rainbow leaving...
Host, management, or microbial traits: Which is dominant in plant microbiome assemblage?
When deciding whether to have children, there are many factors to consider: finances, support systems, personal values. For a growing number of people, climate change is also being added to the list of considerations, says a University of Arizona researcher.
California's worst wildfires are helping improve air quality prediction
We've all heard the news stories of how what you eat can affect your microbiome. Changing your diet can shift your unique microbial fingerprint. This shift can cause a dramatic effect on your health. But what about the microbiome of the plants you eat? Scientists are beginning to see how shifts in plant microbiomes also impact plant health. Unlocking the factors in plant microbial assemblage can...
Study provides detailed look at intriguing property of chiral materials
UC Riverside engineers are developing methods to estimate the impact of California's destructive wildfires on air quality in neighborhoods affected by the smoke from these fires. Their research, funded by NASA and the results published in Atmospheric Pollution Research, fills in the gaps in current methods by providing air quality information at the neighborhood scales required by public health...
The intricate dance between waves, wind, and gliding pelicans is worked out for the first time
In nature, many molecules possess a property called chirality, which means that they cannot be superimposed on their mirror images (like a left and right hand).
Antibiotics protect apples from fire blight, but do they destroy the native microbiome?
It's a common sight: pelicans gliding along the waves, right by the shore. These birds make this kind of surfing look effortless, but actually the physics involved that give them a big boost are not simple.
What leads young women to disclose abuse in their first relationships?
Like humans, certain plants are treated with antibiotics to ward off pathogens and protect the host. Saving millions, antibiotics are one of the 20th century's greatest scientific discoveries, but repeated use and misuse of these life-saving microbial products can disrupt the human microbiome and can have severe effects on an individual's health. Overuse has led to several microbes developing...
Right to food strategy could eliminate food waste on farms
Women who experience partner violence at a young age don't always show physical signs of abuse and don't always disclose—or recognize—the dangerous position they're in. A new study from Michigan State University is one of the first to examine multiple factors that influence young women's disclosure of partner violence that occurred during their first relationships, when they were just under 15...
Lighting it up: Fast material manipulation through a laser
A national strategy to ensure that families have access to food could revolutionize Canada's farms, according to a new study from Simon Fraser University's Food Systems Lab. The study proposes implementing a "right to food" framework that would support the needed funding, infrastructure, and stability that can reduce losses of edible food at the farm, while creating better access to local foods...
Researchers share strategies for making geosciences more inclusive
Researchers from the Physical Chemistry Department of the Fritz Haber Institute and the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg have found out that ultrafast switches in material properties can be prompted by laser pulses—and why. This knowledge may enable new transistor concepts.
Aerial photos uncover an invisible fault in Chinese city
Concrete efforts to bring racial equity to the geosciences are receiving significant attention in the wake of new grassroots efforts and increased awareness of social justice issues in 2020, speakers said at the Seismological Society of America (SSA)'s 2021 Annual Meeting.
Cracking the code of the Dead Sea Scrolls
Decades-old aerial photos of Yudong District, Datong City in Shanxi Province, Northern China have helped researchers in their search for a fault hidden underneath the city's buildings and cement roads, researchers said at the Seismological Society of America (SSA)'s 2021 Annual Meeting.
Monkeys are less cuddly with each other when dealing with an infection, study finds
The Dead Sea Scrolls, discovered some 70 years ago, are famous for containing the oldest manuscripts of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) and many hitherto unknown ancient Jewish texts. But the individual people behind the scrolls have eluded scientists, because the scribes are anonymous. Now, by combining the sciences and the humanities, University of Groningen researchers have cracked the code,...
Swing vote 'trumped' turnout in 2016 election
Brandi Wren was studying social distancing and infections before masking tape marks appeared on the grocery store floor and plastic barriers went up in the post office.
Scientists capture first ever image of an electron's orbit within an exciton
Swing voters in battleground states delivered Donald Trump his unexpected victory in the 2016 presidential election, suggests a new study coauthored by Yale political scientist Gregory A. Huber.
Using floodwaters to weather droughts
In a world first, researchers from the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have captured an image showing the internal orbits, or spatial distribution, of particles in an exciton—a goal that had eluded scientists for almost a century. Their findings are published in Science Advances.
Lifelong burden of high stress hormones in female baboons shortens life expectancy
Floodwaters are not what most people consider a blessing. But they could help remedy California's increasingly parched groundwater systems, according to a new Stanford-led study. The research, published in Science Advances, develops a framework to calculate future floodwater volumes under a changing climate and identifies areas where investments in California's aging water infrastructure could...
New cognitive bias affecting evaluation processes: The 'generosity-erosion effect'
Female baboons may not have bills to pay or deadlines to meet, but their lives are extremely challenging. They face food and water scarcity and must be constantly attuned to predators, illnesses and parasites, all while raising infants and maintaining their social status.
Air pollution data in five Chinese cities differs for local VS US monitoring stations
Researchers at the University of Barcelona, together with researchers from the University of Zurich (Switzerland) and Brown University (United States), have analyzed more than 10,000 evaluations that were carried out to candidates who wish to hold a public teaching position in Catalonia. The objective was to study how the decision by the committee of evaluators is affected by the fact that each...
AI algorithms can influence people's voting and dating decisions in experiments
A new analysis of air pollution data from five large Chinese cities has found statistically significant differences between data from monitoring stations run by local governments and data from stations run by U.S. embassies and consulates. Jesse Turiel of the Harvard University John F. Kennedy School of Government and Robert Kaufmann of Boston University present these findings in the open-access...
Scientists find carbon-rich liquid water in ancient meteorite
In a new series of experiments, artificial intelligence (A.I.) algorithms were able to influence people's preferences for fictitious political candidates or potential romantic partners, depending on whether recommendations were explicit or covert. Ujué Agudo and Helena Matute of Universidad de Deusto in Bilbao, Spain, present these findings in the open-access journal PLOS ONE on April 21, 2021.
As extreme weather increases, climate misinformation adapts
Water is abundant in the solar system. Even beyond Earth, scientists have detected ice on the moon, in Saturn's rings and in comets, liquid water on Mars and under the surface of Saturn's moon Enceladus, and traces of water vapor in the scorching atmosphere of Venus. Studies have shown that water played an important role in the early evolution and formation of the solar system. To learn more about...
Yes, online communities pose risks for young people, but they are also important sources of support
Climate scientists have warned for years that a warming planet would cause more extreme storms, like the one that walloped Texas in February, knocking out power and leaving millions in a deep freeze.
Black hole is closest to Earth, among the smallest ever discovered
Aristotle called humans "the social animal," and people have recognized for centuries that young people need to be in communities to develop into healthy adults. The ongoing pandemic has caused concern about the effects of isolation on children and teenagers' social and psychological growth.
Satellites highlight a 30-year rise in ocean acidification
Scientists have discovered one of the smallest black holes on record—and the closest one to Earth found to date.
Bankers' tone of voice can boost stock markets and soothe investor fears
Oceans play a vital role in taking the heat out of climate change, but at a cost. New research supported by ESA and using different satellite measurements of various aspects of seawater along with measurements from ships has revealed how our ocean waters have become more acidic over the last three decades—and this is having a detrimental effect on marine life.
International research team argues for combination of organic farming and genetic engineering
Financial leaders sounding positive when they answer journalists' questions can boost share prices and soothe investors' fears about market risk, a new study reveals.
How does gecko tape work?
For more sustainability on a global level, EU legislation should be changed to allow the use of gene editing in organic farming. This is what an international research team involving the Universities of Bayreuth and Göttingen demands in a paper published in the journal Trends in Plant Science.
Decades after the oil spill that inspired Earth Day, are we prepared for the next one?
To solve practical issues, sometimes all we have to do is study nature. An often quoted example is that of the gecko, a small animal known for the phenomenal adhesive strength in its feet, which allows it to walk on walls and even ceilings. The phenomenon led to gecko tape, a strongly adhesive DIY tape. Its name suggests that the tape and the gecko stick in similar ways, but are the underlying...
Environmental DNA: How a tool used to detect endangered wildlife ended up helping fight the COVID-19 pandemic
The year was 1969. A blow-out from Union Oil's offshore platform just six miles from the city of Santa Barbara leaked an estimated 80,000 to 100,000 barrels of crude oil into the Santa Barbara Channel, killing approximately 3,500 sea birds and marine animals such as dolphins, elephant seals, and sea lions.
Vaccine mandates aren't the only–or easiest–way for employers to compel workers to get their shots
Imagine discovering an animal species you thought had gone extinct was still living—without laying eyes on it. Such was the case with the Brazilian frog species Megaelosia bocainensis, whose complete disappearance in 1968 led scientists to believe it had become extinct. But through a novel genetic detection technique, it was rediscovered in 2020.
Researchers unlock the secrets of fungal viruses: Why it matters
A workplace showdown may be brewing over mandating vaccinations.
A manifesto for investigating the impacts of object flows on past societies: Objectscapes
In the past year the world has been overwhelmed with rapidly emerging, important and fascinating information regarding SARS CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The pace of learning has been astounding, not just for the general public but for virus experts.
Insect youths give in to parasitic mum
World history is often framed in terms of flows of people and migration: humans coming 'out of Africa," the spread of farmers in the Holocene, Phoenician and Greek diasporas over the ancient Mediterranean, the colonization of the world by Europeans from the 16th century onwards. Together with his Exeter colleague Dr. Martin Pitts, Professor Miguel John Versluys wrote a manifesto in which they...
Recolonization of Europe after the last ice age started earlier than previously thought
Adult children concede to exploitative mums leading to the evolution of insect societies, new research led by the University of St Andrews has found.
Humungous flare from sun's nearest neighbor breaks records
A study that appeared today in Current Biology sheds new light on the continental migrations which shaped the genetic background of all present Europeans. The research generates new ancient DNA evidence and direct dating from a fragmentary fossil mandible belonging to an individual who lived ~17,000 years ago in northeastern Italy (Riparo Tagliente, Verona). The results backdate by about 3,000...
Dating in a jungle: Female praying mantises jut out weird pheromone gland to attract mates
Scientists have spotted the largest flare ever recorded from the sun's nearest neighbor, the star Proxima Centauri.
Astronomers release new all-sky map of the Milky Way's outer reaches
It isn't only myriads of currently unknown species that await discovery in the Amazon rainforests. As a new study by German scientists at the Ruhr-University (Bochum) and the Bavarian State Collection of Zoology (Munich), published in the open-access peer-reviewed scientific Journal of Orthoptera Research, concludes, it seems that so do plenty of unusual behaviors.
Bubble with titanium triggers titanic explosions
Astronomers using data from NASA and the ESA (European Space Agency) telescopes have released a new all-sky map of the outermost region of our galaxy. Known as the galactic halo, this area lies outside the swirling spiral arms that form the Milky Way's recognizable central disk and is sparsely populated with stars. Though the halo may appear mostly empty, it is also predicted to contain a massive...
Improved management of farmed peatlands could cut 500 million tons carbon dioxide
Scientists have found fragments of titanium blasting out of a famous supernova. This discovery, made with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, could be a major step in pinpointing exactly how some giant stars explode.
Vibrational microscopy goes super resolution
Substantial cuts in global greenhouse gas emissions could be achieved by raising water levels in agricultural peatlands, according to a new study in the journal Nature.
New data on the diets of ancient peoples who lived on the Great Hungarian Plain
True super-resolution imaging beyond the diffraction limit remains a major challenge for far-field Raman microscopy especially in biological applications. Harnessing Stimulated Raman Excited Fluorescence (SREF) as an ultrasensitive vibrational contrast, a team at Columbia University has recently invented a novel super-resolution vibrational microscopy. Their new method opens up super-resolution,...
How SARS coronaviruses reprogram host cells to their own benefit
The lifestyle and eating habits of human groups that have lived for thousands of years can be examined by looking at teeth. An international research group analyzed prehistoric findings from the Neolithic Age. In addition to providing knowledge about the lifestyles of people who lived in prehistoric times, a novel study of tooth remains paved the way for other methods previously not used. This...
'Beauty gurus' more trustworthy to audience when their production quality is high
Coronavirus researchers led by Professor Rolf Hilgenfeld of the University of Luebeck and PD Dr. Albrecht von Brunn of the Ludwig-Maximilian Universitaet (LMU) in Munich have discovered how SARS viruses enhance the production of viral proteins in infected cells, so that many new copies of the virus can be generated. Notably, coronaviruses other than SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 do not use this...
Cracking open the mystery of how many bubbles are in a glass of beer
This week, Inderscience Research Picks are focusing on a special issue of the International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising dedicated to social media influencers.
Illuminating invisible bloody fingerprints with a fluorescent polymer
After pouring beer into a glass, streams of little bubbles appear and start to rise, forming a foamy head. As the bubbles burst, the released carbon dioxide gas imparts the beverage's desirable tang. But just how many bubbles are in that drink? By examining various factors, researchers reporting in ACS Omega estimate between 200,000 and nearly 2 million of these tiny spheres can form in a gently...
Ingredient in Indian long pepper shows promise against brain cancer in animal models
Careful criminals usually clean a scene, wiping away visible blood and fingerprints. However, prints made with trace amounts of blood, invisible to the naked eye, could remain. Dyes can detect these hidden prints, but the dyes don't work well on certain surfaces. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces have developed a fluorescent polymer that binds to blood in a...
Piperlongumine, a chemical compound found in the Indian Long Pepper plant (Piper longum), is known to kill cancerous cells in many tumor types, including brain tumors. Now an international team including researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania has illuminated one way in which the piperlongumine works in animal models—and has confirmed its strong...