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229,466 articles from PhysOrg


Study: Adolescents' experiences with police have harmful repercussions for later life outcomes

The criminal justice system has changed dramatically in the past half century and with these changes has come a greater potential for adolescents to encounter police. A new study examined how adolescents' experiences with police—either directly or vicariously (e.g., via witnessing an encounter)—affected their future orientation during the transition to adulthood. The study concluded that...

COVID curriculum brings science home for high school students

When the pandemic sent many students home, University of Arizona researchers and Tucson teachers quickly adapted to the challenges of teaching science without a lab or classroom. A new paper, published in the journal The American Biology Teacher, outlines an at-home science lesson developed at UArizona to teach high schoolers about bioinformatics and SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19....

Study on motivational narratives of meth users in alabama is first photo-ethnography in criminology

A new study examining the narratives and motivations of men and women in rural Alabama who used methamphetamine (meth) is forthcoming in Criminology, a publication of the American Society of Criminology. It is the first photo-ethnography to be published in the journal. The study was led by researchers Heith Copes (University of Alabama at Birmingham [UAB]), Fiona Brookman (University of South...

Cooling radio waves to their quantum ground state

Researchers at Delft University of Technology have found a new way to cool radio waves all the way down to their quantum ground state. To do so, they used circuits that employ an analog of the so-called laser cooling technique that is frequently used to cool atomic samples. The device used a recently developed technique the researchers call photon pressure coupling, which is predicted to be of use...

Only one in four Western Roman emperors died of natural causes

The Roman Empire was ruled by 175 men, from Augustus (63 BCE-19 CE) to Constantine XI (1405-53), including the Eastern or Byzantine Empire after the split in 395 CE, but excluding those who did not rule in their own right because they were minors during regencies or co-emperors.

Key protein linked to appetite and obesity in mice

Researchers from the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have identified a protein that plays a key role in how the brain regulates appetite and metabolism. Loss of the protein, XRN1, from the forebrain, resulted in obese mice with an insatiable appetite, according to a new study published in the journal, iScience.

Study finds forest cover and runoff influenced by freezing temperatures during late Paleozoic ice age

New research led by Baylor University biology doctoral candidate William J. Matthaeus and professor of biology Joseph White, Ph.D., considers how plant freeze-intolerance affected forest cover and hydrology during the Pennsylvanian period, roughly 340 million to 285 million years ago during the Paleozoic Era, proposing improvements to climate projections for the past and future with plant function...

80 percent of people in Switzerland feel fully integrated into society

Social exclusion is currently a topic that's being broadly discussed in the public sphere. It generally refers to a multidimensional process that is shaped by changes in the economic structure over the past few decades and is pushing an increasing share of the population to the economic margins, be it through unemployment, poverty or uncertain living conditions. It is commonly assumed that this...

New nanowire architectures boost computers' processing power

Valerio Piazza is creating new 3D architectures built from an inventive form of nanowire. His research aims to push the boundaries of miniaturization and pave the way to more powerful electronic devices. He has just won the 2020 Piaget Scientific Award, whose prize money will fund his work at EPFL for a year.

A new way to read H3K27 methylation

On September 27, the research team led by Prof. MA Zhonghua at the Zhejiang University College of Agriculture & Biotechnology published an article titled "Fusarium BP1 is a reader of H3K27 methylation" in the journal Nucleic Acids Research.

How herpes seizes proteins' means of production

The Graham and Crump groups at the University of Cambridge and the Svergun Group at EMBL Hamburg have discovered a mechanism by which the herpes simplex virus takes control of the molecular machinery of human cells. Their work reveals how a dedicated viral protein hijacks key host proteins, forcing the host cell to produce and release copies of the virus.

Intelligent optical chip to improve telecommunications

From the internet, to fiber or satellite communications and medical diagnostics, our everyday life relies on optical technologies. These technologies use optical pulsed sources to transfer, retrieve or compute information. Gaining control over optical pulse shapes thus paves the way for further advances.

Plants can prepare for insect attack sequence

Plants are under attack by a variety of insect species. They have defense mechanisms to deal with this, including chemicals or sturdier leaves. But it's now been found that when wild black mustard plants defend themselves against an initial enemy, they already anticipate the need to later fend off other, different enemies. In fact, they even prepare for the most likely sequence of attackers. This...

The biggest comet ever seen will get as close as Saturn in 2031

A mega-comet—potentially the largest ever discovered—is heading from the Oort Cloud towards our direction. Estimated to be 100–200 kilometers across, the unusual celestial wanderer will make its closest approach to the Sun in 2031. However, the closest it will come to Earth is to the orbit of Saturn.

Behaviour resembling human ADHD seen in dogs

A study involving some 11,000 dogs carried out at the University of Helsinki demonstrated that the gender, age an d breed of the dog, as well as any behavioral problems and certain environmental factors, are connected to hyperactive and impulsive behavior and inattention (ADHD).

Quick detection of uranium isotopes helps safeguard nuclear materials

Analytical chemists at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have developed a rapid way to measure isotopic ratios of uranium and plutonium collected on environmental swipes, which could help International Atomic Energy Agency analysts detect the presence of undeclared nuclear activities or material.

Fast flows prevent buildup of impurities on the edge of tokamak plasmas

Impurities in the plasmas in fusion tokamaks can reduce performance. These impurities are created by interactions between the hot plasma and the metal tokamak walls. These walls are often armored with tungsten. This material resists heat, but degrades over time, releasing impurities into the plasma. Simulations predict how these impurities behave, but they are difficult to measure directly...

Greening the gray: Fighting floods with restoration versus riprap

When Hurricane Ida roared to shore in Louisiana last month, a system of flood gates, levees, and pumps largely kept the water out of New Orleans. Natural barriers such as wetlands, islands, and even oyster reefs also played a role by acting as "speed bumps" that damped the storm's impact.

Using quantum Parrondo's random walks for encryption

Assistant Professor Kang Hao Cheong and his research team from the Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD) have set out to apply concepts from quantum Parrondo's paradox in search of a working protocol for semiclassical encryption. In a recent Physical Review Research letter, the team published the paper "Chaotic switching for quantum coin Parrondo's games with application to...

Who's been kissing who? Prairie dog 'greet kisses' reveal complex social networks

Prairie dogs—those chubby little burrowing rodents found in grasslands across the central and western United States—may not have TikTok or Instagram but they do have intricate social networks. Understanding their connections, interactions and surprisingly complex world could help wildlife conservationists more successfully relocate and reintroduce species into the wild, according to a new...

Gulf Stream and Kuroshio Current found to be synchronized on decadal time scale

A team of researchers with members affiliated with a large number of institutions across Japan has found that the Gulf stream and Kuroshio are synchronized on a decadal time scale. In their paper published in the journal Science, the group describes their study of decades of weather satellite data and the link between the two ocean currents. Paola Cessi, with the Scripps Institution of...

China's FAST telescope could detect self-replicating alien probes

One of the most challenging questions to answer when confronting the Fermi paradox is why exponentially scaling technologies haven't taken over the universe by now. Commonly known as von Neumann probes, the idea of a self-replicating swarm of extraterrestrial robots has been a staple of science fiction for decades. But so far, there has never been any evidence of their existence outside the realm...