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163,552 articles from ScienceDaily

Fruit flies offer clues to how brains make reward-based decisions

New research finds fruit flies make decisions based on their expectations about the likelihood of a reward and pinpoints the site in the fly brain where these value adjustments are made, enabling researchers to directly test a theory about how the brain enables this behavior on the level of neural circuits.

Probing the deep genetic structure of Africa

Using ancestry decomposition techniques an international research team has revealed a deeply divergent ancestry among admixed populations from the Angolan Namib desert. This unique genetic heritage brings the researchers closer to understanding the distribution of genetic variation in the broader region of southern Africa before the spread of food production.

Jellyfish, with no central brain, shown to learn from past experience

Even without a central brain, jellyfish can learn from past experiences like humans, mice, and flies, scientists report for the first time. They trained Caribbean box jellyfish (Tripedalia cystophora) to learn to spot and dodge obstacles. The study challenges previous notions that advanced learning requires a centralized brain and sheds light on the evolutionary roots of learning and memory.

Astronomers discover newborn galaxies with the James Webb Space Telescope

With the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope, astronomers are now able to peer so far back in time that we are approaching the epoch where we think that the first galaxies were created. Throughout most of the history of the Universe, galaxies seemingly tend to follow a tight relation between how many stars they have formed, and how many heavy elements they have formed. But for the first time...

Migratory birds can be taught to adjust to climate change

One result of climate change is that spring is arriving earlier. However, migratory birds are not keeping up with these developments and arrive too late for the peak in food availability when it is time for breeding. By getting the birds to fly a little further north, researchers have observed that these birds can give their chicks a better start in life.

Same genes behind heart muscle disorders in humans and Dobermanns

Researchers have made a significant finding in determining the genetic background of dilated cardiomyopathy in Dobermanns. This research helps us understand the genetic risk factors related to fatal diseases of the heart muscle and the mechanisms underlying the disease, and offers new tools for their prevention.

Why are you better at recognizing upright faces? Clues from a person who sees the world differently

When you see a familiar face upright, you'll recognize it right away. But if you saw that same face upside down, it's much harder to place. Now researchers who've studied Claudio, a 42-year-old man whose head is rotated back almost 180 degrees such that it sits between his shoulder blades, suggest that the reason people are so good at processing upright faces has arisen through a combination of...


How climate warming could disrupt a deep-rooted relationship

Trees depend on fungi for their well-being. As climate change and global warming cause higher temperatures and amplified drought, little is known about how these important fungi will respond. To investigate this issue, a research team conducted a climate change experiment where they exposed boreal and temperate tree species to warming and drought treatments to better understand how fungi and their...

New recycling method fights plastic waste

Almost 80% of plastic in the waste stream ends up in landfills or accumulates in the environment. Scientists have now developed a technology that converts a conventionally unrecyclable mixture of plastic waste into useful chemicals, presenting a new strategy in the toolkit to combat global plastic waste.

Unzipping mRNA rallies plant cells to fight infection

Living things from plants to humans must constantly adjust the chemical soup of proteins -- the workhorse molecules of life -- inside their cells to adapt to stress or changing conditions. Now, researchers have identified a previously unknown molecular mechanism that helps explain how they do it. A team now reveals hairpin-like structures of mRNA that, by zipping and unzipping, help cells change...

Monkeys cause a stink in response to human noise

New research has found that monkeys increase their use of scent markings to compensate for human noise pollution. The study has investigated how primates change their communication strategies in response to noise pollution. The researchers studied endangered pied tamarins (Saguinus bicolor), which use both vocal calls and scent markings. The researchers found that the frequency of scent marking...

Riddle of varying warm water inflow in the Arctic now solved

In the 'weather kitchen,' the interplay between the Azores High and Icelandic Low has a substantial effect on how much warm water the Atlantic transports to the Arctic along the Norwegian coast. But this rhythm can be thrown off for years at a time. Experts finally have an explanation for why: Due to unusual atmospheric pressure conditions over the North Atlantic, low-pressure areas are diverted...

Towards a better understanding of early human embryonic development

Despite being an essential developmental process, the understanding of human embryonic genome activation is limited, owing to the lack of in vitro cell models and ethical concerns. To advance understanding, five independent research groups have recently developed human 8-cell-like cells (8CLCs) from pluripotent stem cells using different approaches. In a new study, researchers now compare the...


College athletes experience worse post-injury outcomes for concussions suffered outside of sports

Researchers found that college athletes had worse post-injury outcomes related to concussions they experienced outside of sports than those they experienced while playing sports. Additionally, female athletes who sustained their injury outside of sports had more severe symptoms and more days in sports lost to injury relative to male athletes. These findings suggest the need for improved concussion...

Exercise and muscle regulation: Implications for diabetes and obesity

How do our muscles respond at the molecular level to exercise? Researchers have unraveled the cellular basis and signaling pathways responsible for the positive impact of physical activity on our overall health. Regulatory T cells, a type of immune cell, play a critical role in ensuring proper muscle function. These novel insights are paving the path towards precision medicines targeting metabolic...

Structure of crucial receptor in brain development, function

Scientists have revealed the molecular structure of a type of receptor that's crucial to brain development and function. 'This study shows the dominant assemblies and states of the GABA receptor. That's really the huge breakthrough -- nobody had been able to figure out which of the hundreds of thousands of these assemblies are most highly populated,' said the senior author.

Genetic biomarker may predict severity of food allergy

Researchers reported for the first time that a genetic biomarker may be able to help predict the severity of food allergy reactions. Currently there is no reliable or readily available clinical biomarker that accurately distinguishes patients with food allergies who are at risk for severe life-threatening reactions versus more mild symptoms.

Making contact: Researchers wire up individual graphene nanoribbons

Researchers have developed a method of 'wiring up' graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), a class of one-dimensional materials that are of interest in the scaling of microelectronic devices. Using a direct-write scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) based process, the nanometer-scale metal contacts were fabricated on individual GNRs and could control the electronic character of the GNRs. The researchers say...