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137,292 articles from ScienceDaily

Measuring the tRNA world

Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) deliver specific amino acids to ribosomes during translation of messenger RNA into proteins. The abundance of tRNAs can therefore have a profound impact on cell physiology, but measuring the amount of each tRNA in cells has been limited by technical challenges. Researchers have now overcome these limitations with mim-tRNAseq, a method that can be used to quantify tRNAs in any...

Exposure to diverse career paths can help fill labor market 'skills gap'

When Patrick Rottinghaus began college, he had no idea what he wanted to do with his career. He started out as an "Open" major while he explored possibilities. Today, he is helping young people eager to find their place in the world by identifying their strengths and connecting them with careers that match their skill-set, interests and personality. As the father of three children, including a...

Engineering the boundary between 2D and 3D materials

For practical applications, two-dimensional materials such as graphene must at some point connect with the ordinary world of 3D materials. Researchers have come up with a way of imaging what goes on at these interfaces, down to the level of individual atoms, with the goal of better controlling these materials' electronic properties.

Light-emitting tattoo engineered

The technology, which uses organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), is applied in the same way as water transfer tattoos. That is, the OLEDs are fabricated on to temporary tattoo paper and transferred to a new surface by being pressed on to it and dabbed with water.

A weak heart makes a suffering brain

Heart problems cause disturbed gene activity in the brain's memory center, from which cognitive deficits arise. Researchers at the DZNE come to this conclusion based on laboratory studies. They consider that they have found a possible cause for the increased risk of dementia in people with heart problems.

Under climate stress, human innovation set stage for population surge

Aridification in the central plains of China during the early Bronze Age did not cause population collapse, a result that highlights the importance of social resilience to climate change. Instead of a collapse amid dry conditions, development of agriculture and increasingly complex human social structures set the stage for a dramatic increase in human population around 3,900 to 3,500 years ago.

Maternal instincts lead to social life of bees

The maternal care of offspring is one of the behavioral drivers that has led some bee species to have an ever-expanding social life over the history of evolution, new research has found. By virtue of being in a social group the genome itself may respond by selecting more social, rather than non-social genes. The behavior and social environment come first setting the stage for future molecular...

Largest cluster of galaxies known in the early universe

A study has found the most densely populated galaxy cluster in formation in the primitive universe. The researchers predict that this structure, which is at a distance of 12.5 billion light years from us, will have evolved into a cluster similar to that of Virgo, a neighbor of the Local Group of galaxies to which the Milky Way belongs.

Dinosaur species: 'Everyone's unique'

'Everyone's unique' is a popular maxim. All people are equal, but there are of course individual differences. This was no different with dinosaurs. A study has now revealed that the variability of Plateosaurus trossingensis was much greater than previously assumed. The paleontologists examined a total of 14 complete skulls of this species, eight of which they described for the first time.

Can a robot operate effectively underwater?

Researchers find sea stars' shape plays an important role in their ability to withstand dynamic water forces and remain attached to surfaces. Understanding such shape shifting could help design underwater robots that can similarly adapt to extreme hydrodynamic environments.

Retroviruses are re-writing the koala genome and causing cancer

Koalas are facing multiple environmental and health issues which threaten their survival. Along with habitat loss - accelerated by last year's devastating bush fires - domestic dog attacks and road accidents, they suffer from deadly chlamydial infections and extremely high frequency of cancer. Scientists now demonstrate that a retrovirus invading the koala germline explains the high frequency of...

African leopard: A cat of all trades

The leopard stands out as an elusive, versatile, and adaptable animal. Researchers have just published the first genomic data for the African subspecies of the leopard. The results showed an exceptionally high genetic diversity compared to other top predators, transforming our understanding of population dynamics in species at the top of the food chain.


Comet makes a pit stop near Jupiter's asteroids

After traveling several billion miles toward the Sun, a wayward young comet-like object orbiting among the giant planets has found a temporary parking place along the way. The object has settled near a family of captured ancient asteroids, called Trojans, that are orbiting the Sun alongside Jupiter. This is the first time a comet-like object has been spotted near the Trojan population.

Understanding the evolution of SARS and COVID-19 type viruses

As COVID-19 sweeps the world, related viruses quietly circulate among wild animals. A new study shows how SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and SARS-CoV-1, which caused the 2003 SARS outbreak, are related to each other. The work helps scientists better understand the evolution of these viruses, how they acquired the ability to infect humans and which other viruses may be poised for human...

Openly available toolkit to help lab-based coronavirus research

During the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, laboratories worldwide have pivoted from their usual research to working to identify new COVID-19 drug and vaccine candidates. This experimental work requires access to clinical isolates and systems that allow genetic manipulation of SARS-CoV-2. A new paper reports an openly available SARS-CoV-2 laboratory research toolkit aimed at increasing availability of these...

Study finds short window for donating convalescent plasma to COVID-19 patients

The optimal timeframe for donating convalescent plasma for use in COVID-19 immunotherapy, which was given emergency use authorization by the Food and Drug Administration in August 2020, is within 60 days of the onset of symptoms, according to a new study. The research also reveals that the ideal convalescent plasma donor is a recovered COVID-19 patient who is older than 30 and whose illness had...

Gulf Stream System at its weakest in over a millennium

Never before in over 1000 years the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), also known as Gulf Stream System, has been as weak as in the last decades. Researchers compiled proxy data, reaching back hundreds of years to reconstruct the AMOC flow history. They found consistent evidence that its slowdown in the 20th century is unprecedented in the past millennium.

Extreme melt on Antarctica's George VI ice shelf

Antarctica's northern George VI Ice Shelf experienced record melting during the 2019-2020 summer season compared to 31 previous summers of dramatically lower melt, a new study found. Using satellite observations that detect meltwater on top of the ice and within near-surface snow, the researchers found the most widespread melt of any season. Surface meltwater ponding is potentially dangerous to...

How could rising sea level impact the National Flood Insurance Program?

Insurance policy premiums from the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) allow policyholders to maintain a lower, grandfathered rate even when the risk escalates. But as coastal flooding increases due to rising sea level and more intense storms, new research suggests this grandfathered policy could lead to big losses for the NFIP.

On the line: Watching nanoparticles get in shape

Scientists have captured real-time, high-resolution videos of liquid structures taking shape as nanoparticles form a solid-like layer at the interface between oil and water. Their findings could help advance all-liquid robotics for targeted cancer drug delivery and other applications.