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145,090 articles from ScienceDaily

Call-and-response circuit tells neurons when to grow synapses

Brain cells called astrocytes play a key role in helping neurons develop and function properly, but there's still a lot scientists don't understand about how astrocytes perform these important jobs. Now, a team of scientists has found one way that neurons and astrocytes work together to form healthy connections called synapses. This insight into normal astrocyte function could help scientists...

Tiny microscopic hunters could be a crystal ball for climate change

Tiny unicellular creatures called protists could keep greenhouse gases out of the atmosphere by gobbling up bacteria that emit CO2, researchers say. Now, a study finds that a few simple measures of a protist's size and shape can be powerful predictors of how they might respond to global warming themselves.

Topological valley Hall edge solitons in photonics

A research team recently discovered a novel kind of topological edge soliton that is independent of magnetic field. The valley Hall edge soliton inherits its topological protection from its linear counterpart and does not require any external magnetic field. The result is a light beam that is robust, localized, and maintains its shape during propagation over distance.

Nearly 500 ancient ceremonial sites found in southern Mexico

A team of international researchers reported last year that they had uncovered the largest and oldest Maya monument -- Aguada Fénix. That same team has now uncovered nearly 500 smaller ceremonial complexes that are similar in shape and features to Aguada Fénix. The find transforms previous understanding of Mesoamerican civilization origins and the relationship between the Olmec and the Maya...

Neutron star collisions are 'goldmine' of heavy elements, study finds

Most elements lighter than iron are forged in the cores of stars, but scientists have puzzled over what could give rise to gold, platinum, and the rest of the universe's heavy elements. study finds that of two long-suspected sources of heavy metals, one of them -- a merger between two neutron stars -- is more of a goldmine than the other.

That primate’s got rhythm!

What are the origins of musical rhythm? Are humans the only mammals that have rhythm? Researchers have studied indris, the 'singing primates' from Madagascar to learn more. Indri songs recorded in the wild have rhythmic categories similar to those found in human music. Finding common musical traits across species may shed light on the biology and evolution of rhythm and music.

Antibiotics for appendicitis

Antibiotics are now an accepted first-line treatment for most people with appendicitis, according to final results of the Comparing Outcomes of antibiotic Drugs and Appendectomy (CODA) trial, and an updated treatment guideline for appendicitis from the American College of Surgeons.

Redefining human diseases through the lens of your DNA

Researchers performed genome-wide analysis studies (GWAS) to identify genetic elements associated with various diseases. To address inequities in previous GWAS, the team included 180,000 Japanese people and 220 health-related phenotypes in this analysis. After meta-analyzing the results with biobanks from the UK and Finland, they identified 5,000 novel genomic loci of phenotypic significance. They...

Vitamin D deficiency for the first time visible after cremation

The cremation process destroys a lot of information that can usually be obtained from the human skeleton. Especially diseases are difficult to observe. Researchers have now found a way to reveal some of the information. For the first time, they have succeeded in detecting vitamin D deficiency in cremated human remains.

Superconductivity: New tricks for finding better materials

Two years ago, a new class of promising superconductors was discovered: so-called layered nickelates. For the first time a theoretical model is now available that can be used to understand the electronic mechanisms of high-temperature superconductivity in these materials.

Metabolic memory plays a key role in breast cancer relapse

Molecular targets for therapies that could prevent breast cancer recurrence have been identified by a group of scientists who analyzed tumor cells that proved resistant to the original treatment. Recent advances in early detection and targeted therapy have led to a growing success in treating breast cancer upon first presentation. This often is achieved by silencing tumor driving oncogenes and...

A big leap forward in using iron catalysts for pharmaceuticals

Researchers have created and characterized a novel, three-component cross-coupling reaction that is a 'tremendous leap forward' in developing effective and practical iron-based reactions that could be used to create pharmaceuticals. Unlike palladium, the transition metal catalyst most often used in industry and academic labs, iron is abundant, cheap and relatively nontoxic.


New study suggests that breastfeeding may help prevent cognitive decline

A new study has found that women over the age of 50 who had breastfed their babies performed better on cognitive tests compared to women who had never breastfed. The findings suggest that breastfeeding may have a positive impact on postmenopausal women's cognitive performance and could have long-term benefits for the mother's brain.

Slow release of a drug, TT-10, improves heart attack recovery in a mouse model

A pharmaceutical product called TT-10, which spurs proliferation of heart muscle cells, was thought to offer promise to treat heart attacks. In a mouse heart-attack model several years ago, intraperitoneal injection of TT-10 at first promoted proliferation of heart muscle cells and showed declines in the size of the dead area of heart muscle. However, these early improvements were followed by...


A diet of essential amino acids could keep dementia at bay

Protein intake is known to be vital for maintaining brain function in older individuals. Now, using a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, researchers have shown that the intake of a specific set of amino acids can inhibit the death of brain cells, protect the connections between them, and reduce inflammation, preserving brain function. Their research suggests that this amino acid combination...

Mechanism behind ineffective psoriasis drugs identified

Interleukin-12 -- a messenger molecule of immune cells -- was long considered to trigger the development of psoriasis. Now, researchers have shown that interleukin-12 does not actually cause the skin disease but protects against it. This also explains why common psoriasis drugs that block the messenger show insufficient treatment efficacy.

Stronger than spider silk: Bagworm silk enables strong conducting fibers

Researchers have harnessed the strength of bagworm silk to produce a strong conductive fiber. To obtain this novel fiber, the research team combined bagworm silk with polyaniline as a conducting polymer. The composite fibers act as an optical waveguide and are suitable for use in textile transistors. This production of a bagworm silk/polyaniline composite will enable the use of biocompatible...

Traces of an ancient road in a lake

Eight hundred years of settlement history with land reforms, epidemics and repeated wars are preserved in the sediments of Lake Czechowskie in Poland. The key role was played by the so-called Margrave's Road, the 'Via Marchionis', between the Prussian heartland and the Teutonic Order's castle Marienburg (today Malbork in Poland). The road remained significant for centuries.

Quantum battles in attoscience: Following three debates

The field of attoscience has been kickstarted by new advances in laser technology. Research began with studies of three particular processes. First, 'above-threshold ionization' (ATI), describing atoms which are ionized by more than the required number of photons. Second, 'high harmonic generation' (HHG) occurs when a target is illuminated by an intense laser pulse, causing it to emit...

Historical analysis finds no precedent for the rate of coal and gas power decline needed to limit climate change to 1.5°C

Limiting climate change to the 1.5°C target set by the Paris Climate Agreement will likely require coal and gas power use to decline at rates that are unprecedented for any large country, finds an analysis of decadal episodes of fossil fuel decline in 105 countries between 1960 and 2018. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the most rapid historical cases of fossil fuel decline occurred when...

Fighting multiple sclerosis with cold

In evolutionary biology, the 'Life History Theory,' first proposed in the 1950s, postulates that when the environment is favorable, the resources used by any organism are devoted for growth and reproduction. Conversely, in a hostile environment, resources are transferred to so-called maintenance programs, such as energy conservation and defense against external attacks. Scientists developed this...

Mechanism underlying the emergence of virus variants unraveled

Scientists have probed the molecular origins of recombination in RNA viruses. Hiccups during the copying process of viruses cause recombination to take place: the exchange of segments of viral RNA. While this can lead to the emergence of new virus variants, the mechanism can also be exploited to induce non-viable defective viruses

Electrical control over designer quantum materials

In the past few years, suitably engineered stacks of two-dimensional materials have emerged as a powerful platform for studying quantum correlations between electronic states. Physicists now demonstrate how key properties of such systems can be conveniently tuned by changing an applied electrical field.