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131,899 articles from ScienceDaily

Ecologists sound alarm on plastic pollution

Ecologists examining plastic pollution entering oceans, rivers and lakes around the world annually, outline potential impacts of various mitigation strategies over the coming decade. The researchers estimate the scale of human response needed to reduce future emissions and manage what's already floating around out there and recommend a fundamental shift to a framework based on recycling where...

A scientific first: How psychedelics bind to key brain cell receptor

For the first time, scientists solved the high-resolution structure of these compounds when they are actively bound to the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor on the surface of brain cells. This discovery is already leading to the exploration of more precise compounds that could eliminate hallucinations but still have strong therapeutic effects. Psilocybin - the psychedelic compound in mushrooms - has...

Curve at tip of shoes eases movement but may lead to weaker muscles, problems

The scientists found that the more curved a toe spring is, the less power the foot inside the shoe has to exert when pushing off from the ground while walking. That means foot muscles are doing less work, and this, the researchers hypothesize, may have consequences such as less endurance and make people more susceptible to medical conditions like plantar fasciitis.


THURSDAY 17. SEPTEMBER 2020


Curbing land clearing for food production is vital to reverse biodiversity declines

Preserving terrestrial biodiversity requires more ambitious land-conservation targets to be established and met. At the same time, 'bending the curve' on biodiversity loss needs more efficient food production, and healthier and less wasteful consumption and trade. If undertaken with 'unprecedented ambition and coordination,' these efforts provide an opportunity to reverse terrestrial biodiversity...

How much will polar ice sheets add to sea level rise?

Over 99% of terrestrial ice is bound up in the ice sheets covering Antarctic and Greenland. Even partial melting of this ice due to climate change will significantly contribute to sea level rise. But how much exactly? For the first time ever, glaciologists, oceanographers, and climatologists from 13 countries have teamed up to make new projections.

Understanding the movement patterns of free-swimming marine snails

New research looks at the swimming and sinking kinematics of nine species of warm water pteropods (sea snails) to shed light on their ecology, predator-prey interactions, and vertical distributions. By using a high-speed stereophotogrammetry system, investigators were able to focus on how the shell shape, body geometry, and body size affect their swimming behavior from a fluid mechanics...

Could breadfruit be the next superfood? Researchers say yes

A fruit used for centuries in countries around the world is getting the nutritional thumbs-up from a team of researchers. Breadfruit, which grows in abundance in tropical and South Pacific countries, has long been a staple in the diet of many people. The fruit can be eaten when ripe, or it can be dried and ground up into a flour and repurposed into many types of meals.

New calculation refines comparison of matter with antimatter

An international collaboration of theoretical physicists has published a new calculation relevant to the search for an explanation of the predominance of matter over antimatter in our universe. The new calculation gives a more accurate prediction for the likelihood with which kaons decay into a pair of electrically charged pions vs. a pair of neutral pions.

Time-restricted feeding improves health without altering the body's core clock

For the first time, scientists have studied the early effects of time-restricted feeding on the daily periodic oscillations of metabolites and genes in muscle, and metabolites in blood. The findings find that time-restricted feeding does not influence the muscle's core clock, and opens the door to more research on how these observed changes improve health.

Engineered bacteria churn out cancer biomarkers

Pity the glycan. A lab has created these very tools by commandeering simple, single-celled microorganisms - namely E. coli bacteria - and engineering them to explore the complex process of glycosylation and the functional role that protein-linked glycans play in health and disease.

Saharan dust reaching Amazon quantified

A new study quantified the amount of Saharan dust reaching the Amazon to better understand how dust could impact soil fertility in the region. Intense tropical weathering and local biomass burning have both contributed to nutrient-poor soil in the Amazon Basin.

Sea ice triggered the Little Ice Age

A new study finds a trigger for the Little Ice Age that cooled Europe from the 1300s through mid-1800s, and supports surprising model results suggesting that under the right conditions sudden climate changes can occur spontaneously, without external forcing.

Secret of plant dietary fiber structure revealed

Researchers have uncovered the mechanics of how plant cell walls balance the strength and rigidity provided by cellulose with its ability to stretch and compress. This discovery helps explain how plant structures can range from floppy grasses to hard wood trees and is important for understanding dietary fiber properties in nutrition. The findings also have applications in medicine, agriculture and...

0.5°C of additional warming has a huge effect on global aridity

In a simulation study, researchers showed that limiting global warming to 1.5°C rather than 2°C will mitigate aridification in some regions of the world including the Mediterranean, western Europe, and southern Africa. However, Australia and some parts of Asia were simulated to become wetter rather than drier at both 1.5°C and 2°C of warming. These findings reveal the importance of targeted...

'Floating' graphene on a bed of calcium atoms

Adding calcium to graphene creates an extremely-promising superconductor, but where does the calcium go? In a new study, a Monash-led team has for the first time confirmed what actually happens to those calcium atoms. Surprising everyone, the calcium goes underneath both the upper graphene sheet and a lower 'buffer' sheet, 'floating' the graphene on a bed of calcium atoms.

Potential target identified for migraine therapy

Researchers have identified the protein GLT-1 as the neurotransmitter glutamate transporter in the brain that is related to cortical spreading depression, a pathological condition that underlies migraines. The researchers found that mice lacking GLT-1, but not other glutamate receptors, were more susceptible to cortical spreading depression than were controls. GLT-1 might therefore be a potential...

Mathematical modelling to prevent fistulas

It is better to invest in measures that make it easier for women to visit a doctor during pregnancy than measures to repair birth injuries. This is the conclusion from mathematicians, using Uganda as an example.

Metformin for type 2 diabetes patients or not? Researchers now have the answer

Metformin is the first-line drug that can lower blood sugar levels in type 2 diabetes patients. One third of patients do not respond to metformin treatment and 5 per cent experience serious side effects, which is the reason many choose to stop medicating. Researchers have now identified biomarkers that can show in advance how the patient will respond to metformin treatment via a simple blood test....

Discovery of microbes with mixed membranes sheds new light on early evolution of life

Current research suggests that more complex life-forms, including humans, evolved from a symbiosis event between bacteria and another single-celled organism known as archaea. However, evidence of a transition period in which the two organisms mixed where nowhere to be found. That is, until now. In the deep waters of the Black Sea, a team of scientists found microbes that can make membrane lipids...

Researchers 3D print tiny multicolor microstructures

Researchers have developed an automated 3D printing method that can produce multicolor 3D microstructures using different materials. The new method could be used to make a variety of optical components including optical sensors and light-driven actuators as well as multimaterial structures for applications such as soft robotics and medical applications.

New smart drug delivery system may help treatment for neurological disorders

A research team has created a smart drug delivery system that reduces inflammation in damaged nervous tissues and may help treat spinal cord injuries and other neurological disorders. The system, which uses extremely thin biomaterials implanted in the body, also protects nerve fibers (axons) that connect nerve cells in injured neural tissues, according to a new study.


WEDNESDAY 16. SEPTEMBER 2020