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142,430 articles from ScienceDaily

What happens to marine life when oxygen is scarce?

In September of 2017, marine biologists were conducting an experiment in Bocas del Toro, off the Caribbean coast of Panama. After sitting on a quiet, warm open ocean, they snorkeled down to find a peculiar layer of murky, foul-smelling water about 10 feet below the surface, with brittle stars and sea urchins, which are usually in hiding, perching on the tops of coral. This observation prompted a...

Scientists model 'true prevalence' of COVID-19 throughout pandemic

Scientists have developed a statistical framework that incorporates key COVID-19 data -- such as case counts and deaths due to COVID-19 -- to model the true prevalence of this disease in the United States and individual states. Their approach projects that in the U.S. as many as 60 percent of COVID-19 cases went undetected as of March 7, 2021, the last date for which the dataset they employed is...

Supernova's 'fizzled' gamma-ray burst

On Aug. 26, 2020, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detected a pulse of high-energy radiation that had been racing toward Earth for nearly half the present age of the universe. Lasting only about a second, it turned out to be one for the record books -- the shortest gamma-ray burst (GRB) caused by the death of a massive star ever seen.

Hubble finds evidence of water vapor at Jupiter's moon Ganymede

Astronomers have uncovered evidence of water vapor in the atmosphere of Jupiter's moon Ganymede. This water vapor forms when ice from the moon's surface sublimates -- that is, turns from solid to gas. Astronomers re-examined Hubble observations from the last two decades to find this evidence of water vapor.

Function of sex chromosomes in turtles

A new study sheds light on how organisms have evolved to address imbalances in sex chromosomes. The study looks at a species of softshell turtle, but the results could help to illuminate an important evolutionary process in many species. The research centers on a process known as sex chromosome dosage compensation.

Two types of blood pressure meds prevent heart events equally, but side effects differ

In an analysis of almost 3 million patients taking a single high blood pressure medication for the first time, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) were as good as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors at preventing cardiovascular events linked to hypertension, including heart attack, stroke and heart failure. 51 possible side effects and safety concerns were examined: The patients taking...

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Cascaded metasurfaces for dynamic control of THz wavefronts

Researchers have developed a general framework and metadevices for achieving dynamic control of THz wavefronts. Instead of locally controlling the individual meta-atoms in a THz metasurface (e.g., via PIN diode, varactor, etc.), they vary the polarization of a light beam with rotating multilayer cascaded metasurfaces.

Why four-legged animals are better sprinters

Scientists have studied the characteristics determining the maximum running speed in animals. The model they developed explains why humans cannot keep up with the fastest sprinters in the animal kingdom. Based on these calculations, the giant spider Shelob from 'The Lord of the Rings' would have reached a maximum speed of 60 km/h.

Reverse optogenetic tool developed

A new optogenetic tool, a protein that can be controlled by light, has been characterized by researchers. They used an opsin -- a protein that occurs in the brain and eyes -- from zebrafish and introduced it into the brain of mice. Unlike other optogenetic tools, this opsin is not switched on but rather switched off by light. Experiments also showed that the tool could be suitable for...

Bio-based coating for wood outperforms traditional synthetic options

Researchers have used lignin, a natural polymer abundant in wood and other plant sources, to create a safe, low-cost and high-performing coating for use in construction. As there is a global urge to meet the rising sustainability standards, this new coating has great potential to protect wood, whose use in construction is continually increasing. The new coating is non-toxic, hydrofobic, it retains...

Potential role of 'junk DNA' sequence in aging, cancer

Researchers have recently identified a DNA region known as VNTR2-1 that appears to drive the activity of the telomerase gene, which has been shown to prevent aging in certain types of cells. Knowing how the telomerase gene is regulated and activated and why it is only active in certain cell types could someday be the key to understanding how humans age and how to stop the spread of cancer.

Blushing plants reveal when fungi are growing in their roots

Scientists have created plants whose cells and tissues 'blush' with beetroot pigments when they are colonized by fungi that help them take up nutrients from the soil. This is the first time this vital, 400 million year old process has been visualized in real time in full root systems of living plants. Understanding the dynamics of plant colonisation by fungi could help to make food production more...

Topology in biology

A phenomenon known from quantum systems could now make its way into biology: Researchers show that the notion of topological protection can also apply to biochemical networks. The model which the scientists developed makes the topological toolbox, typically used only to describe quantum systems, now also available to biology.

The impact of climate change on Kenya's Tana river basin

Many species within Kenya's Tana River Basin will be unable to survive if global temperatures continue to rise as they are on track to do - according to new research. A new study outlines how remaining within the goals of the Paris Agreement would save many species. The research also identifies places that could be restored to better protect biodiversity and contribute towards global ecosystem...

DeepMind and EMBL release the most complete database of predicted 3D structures of human proteins

DeepMind is partnering with EMBL to make the most complete and accurate database yet of the predicted human protein structures freely and openly available to the scientific community. The AlphaFold Protein Structure Database will enable research that advances understanding of these building blocks of life, accelerating research across a variety of fields. AlphaFold's impact is already being...

Martian global dust storm ended winter early in the south

A dust storm that engulfed Mars in 2018 destroyed a vortex of cold air around the planet's south pole and brought an early spring to the hemisphere. By contrast, the storm caused only minor distortions to the polar vortex in the northern hemisphere and no dramatic seasonal changes.

Meet the Martian meteorite hunters

A team is paving the way for future rovers to search for meteorites on Mars. The scientists are using an extensive meteorite collection to test the spectral instruments destined for the ExoMars rover Rosalind Franklin, and develop tools to identify meteorites on the surface of the red planet.


Big data-derived tool facilitates closer monitoring of recovery from natural disasters

By analyzing peoples' visitation patterns to essential establishments like pharmacies, religious centers and grocery stores during Hurricane Harvey, researchers have developed a framework to assess the recovery of communities after natural disasters in near real time. They said the information gleaned from their analysis would help federal agencies allocate resources equitably among communities...

'Good cholesterol' may protect liver

The body's so-called good cholesterol may be even better than we realize. New research suggests that one type of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) has a previously unknown role in protecting the liver from injury. This HDL protects the liver by blocking inflammatory signals produced by common gut bacteria.

Unravelling the knotty problem of the Sun's activity

A new approach to analysing the development of magnetic tangles on the Sun has led to a breakthrough in a longstanding debate about how solar energy is injected into the solar atmosphere before being released into space, causing space weather events. The first direct evidence that field lines become knotted before they emerge at the visible surface of the Sun has implications for our ability to...

Young workers now value respect over 'fun' perks in the workplace

Millennials, often referred to as the 'job-hopping generation,' represent a group of young workers who once grabbed the national spotlight with their publicized demands for 'fun' work perks, such as happy hours. However, researchers have discovered today's young workers -- ages 21-34 -- represent a life-stage shift toward placing more value on having respectful communication in the workplace over...

Early-life social connections influence gene expression, stress resilience

Having friends may not only be good for the health of your social life, but also for your actual health -- if you're a hyena, that is. Strong social connections and greater maternal care early in life can influence molecular markers related to gene expression in DNA and future stress response, suggests a new study of spotted hyenas in the wild.

'Wrapping' anodes in 3D carbon nanosheets: The next big thing in li-ion battery technology

The lithium-ion battery is the future of sustainable energy technology, but drastic volume fluctuations in their anodes related to enhanced battery capacity raises a safety concern. Recently, researchers have found that embedding manganese selenide anodes in a 3D carbon nanosheet matrix is an innovative, simple, and low-cost means of reducing drastic volume expansion while improving the energy...