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151,360 articles from ScienceDaily

How anesthetics affect brain functions

Modern anesthesia is one of the most important medical achievements. Whereas before, patients had to suffer hellish agonies during every operation, today anesthesia enables completely painless procedures. One feels nothing and can remember nothing afterwards. It is already known from electroencephalography (EEG) studies on patients that during anesthesia the brain is put into a deep sleep-like...

Curbing other climate pollutants, not just CO2, gives Earth a chance

Slashing emissions of carbon dioxide by itself isn't enough to prevent catastrophic global warming, a new study shows. But if we simultaneously also reduce emissions of methane and other often overlooked climate pollutants, we could cut the rate of global warming in half by 2050 and give the world a fighting chance.

Researchers develop algorithm to divvy up tasks for human-robot teams

Researchers have developed an algorithmic planner that helps delegate tasks to humans and robots. The planner, 'Act, Delegate or Learn' (ADL), considers a list of tasks and decides how best to assign them. The researchers asked three questions: When should a robot act to complete a task? When should a task be delegated to a human? And when should a robot learn a new task?

Reference genomes provide first insights into genetic roots of mustelid physiological and behavioral diversity

Mustelids are the most ecologically and taxonomically diverse family within the order Carnivora. From the tayra in the neotropics to the wolverine in the subarctic, they inhabit a variety of ecological niches and developed corresponding species-specific traits related to their diet, reproductive strategy and morphology. An international team of scientists conducted a comparative analysis of whole...

Desire for son in Nepal may impact on girls' health and wellbeing -- new study

The desire for a son could mean Nepali mothers stop breastfeeding infant daughters sooner, says new research. Girls in Nepal are breastfed for fewer months than boys on average, with girls with older sisters but no brothers being the most disadvantaged, says the study. And this shorter breastfeeding time is linked to a greater risk of death for Nepali infants in the study.

Cystic fibrosis: Restoring airway integrity

Cystic fibrosis is a rare genetic disease which can cause very serious symptoms. In particular, patients suffer from chronic bacterial infections that can lead to respiratory failure. It is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, which regulates water movement across the cell membrane. Consequently, mucus quality is altered, it is no longer capable of capturing undesirable bacteria and expelling...

MONDAY 23. MAY 2022

Microbes can degrade the toughest PFAS

Engineers now report selective breakdown of a particularly stubborn class of PFAS called fluorinated carboxylic acids (FCAs) by common microorganisms. Under anaerobic conditions, a carbon-carbon double bond is crucial for the shattering the ultra-strong carbon-fluorine bond by microbial communities. The resulting products could be relayed to other microorganisms for defluorination under in aerobic...

Charting a safe course through a highly uncertain environment

Researchers have developed a trajectory-planning system for autonomous vehicles that enables them to travel from a starting point to a target location safely, even when there are many different uncertainties in the environment, such as unknown variations in the shapes, sizes, and locations of obstacles.

Small adaptations, major effect: Researchers study potential of future public transportation

Being mobile individually, at any time -- without owning a car: To facilitate this, public transportation authorities cooperate with service providers for new forms of mobility such as bicycle sharing, car sharing, or ridepooling. Researchers have studied how publicly available mobility options in the Karlsruhe region in the future can optimally fulfill the citizens' needs. The result: Widespread...

Bacteria can live in snake and spider venoms

Newly published research shows that, contrary to what is commonly believed, the venom of snakes and spiders is actually populated with microbes, including bacteria that could cause infection in people who have suffered a bite.

New CRISPR-combo boosts genome editing power in plants

Scientists have developed CRISPR-Combo, a method to edit multiple genes in plants while simultaneously changing the expression of other genes. This new tool will enable genetic engineering combinations that work together to boost functionality and improve breeding of new crops.

Diamond mirrors for high-powered lasers

Researchers have built a mirror out of one of the strongest materials on the planet: diamond. By etching nanostructures onto the surface of a thin sheet of diamond, the research team built a highly reflective mirror that withstood, without damage, experiments with a 10-kilowatt Navy laser. In the future, the researchers envision these mirrors being used for defense applications, semiconductor...

Genetic test can diagnose certain immune system disorders

Primary immunodeficiency disorders (PID) can result in chronic and sometimes life-threatening infections. More than 450 PIDs have been described, but timely and accurate diagnoses remain a challenge. In a new study investigators used next-generation sequencing technology to test a DNA panel of 130 different immune system genes from 22 study participants. They found that many patients had inherited...

Skydiving salamanders live in world's tallest trees

Researchers have documented in a vertical wind tunnel the amazing ability of one species of salamander -- which spends its entire life in the tops of redwoods -- to parachute, glide and maneuver in mid-air. Ground-dwellers, on the other hand, freak out during free-fall. The salamander's skydiving skills are likely a way to steer back to a tree it has fallen or jumped from to avoid terrestrial...

Novel AI algorithm for digital pathology analysis

Digital pathology is an emerging field which deals with mainly microscopy images that are derived from patient biopsies. Because of the high resolution, most of these whole slide images (WSI) have a large size, typically exceeding a gigabyte (Gb). Therefore, typical image analysis methods cannot efficiently handle them. Seeing a need, researchers developed a novel artificial intelligence (AI)...

Noisy jackdaw birds reach 'consensus' before taking off

On cold, dark winter mornings, small black crows known as jackdaws can be heard calling loudly to one another from their winter roosting spots in the U.K. before taking off simultaneously right around sunrise. Now, researchers who've studied their daily activities in unprecedented detail report evidence that these groups of hundreds of individuals rely on a 'democratic' decision-making process to...

Scientists find sea corals are source of sought-after 'anti-cancer' compound

The bottom of the ocean is full of mysteries but scientists have recently uncovered one of its best-kept secrets. For 25 years, drug hunters have been searching for the source of a natural chemical that had shown promise in initial studies for treating cancer. Now, researchers report that easy-to-find soft corals -- flexible corals that resemble underwater plants -- make the elusive compound.

The limits of vision: Seeing shadows in the dark

A specific retinal pathway enables mice to detect incredibly dim shadows -- nearly reaching the limit of what's physically possible. The same circuit is in human eyes, which might enable researchers to probe visual diseases at unprecedented resolution.

Monitoring the 'journey' of microplastics through the intestine of a living organism

A UAB research team has managed to track the behaviour of microplastics during their 'journey' through the intestinal tract of a living organism and illustrate what happens along the way. The study, carried out on Drosophila melanogaster using electron microscopy equipment developed by the researchers themselves, represents a significant step towards a more precise analysis of the health risks of...