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144,996 articles from ScienceDaily

Scientists part of team that points to strong connection between climate change, plastics pollution

At the root of global climate change and the worldwide plastics problem are two related carbon-based fuels -- oil and natural gas. Not only are the two among the key drivers of climate change, they are instrumental in the manufacturing of plastics. As storms intensify and become more frequent, the movement of trash from land to our oceans and, and vice versa, is only going to get worse.

Bat study reveals secrets of the social brain

Neuroscientists used wireless devices to record the neural activity of freely interacting Egyptian fruit bats, providing researchers with the first glimpse into how the brains of social mammals process complex group interactions.

Shape-shifting materials with infinite possibilities

Researchers have developed a shape-shifting material that can take and hold any possible shape, paving the way for a new type of multifunctional material that could be used in a range of applications, from robotics and biotechnology to architecture.

How pearls achieve nanoscale precision

In research that could inform future high-performance nanomaterials, a study has uncovered how mollusks build ultradurable structures with a level of symmetry that outstrips everything else in the natural world, with the exception of individual atoms.

Astronomers provide 'field guide' to exoplanets known as hot Jupiters

By combining Hubble Space Telescope observations with theoretical models, a team of astronomers has gained insights into the chemical and physical makeup of a variety of exoplanets known as hot Jupiters. The findings provide a new and improved 'field guide' for this group of planets and inform ideas about planet formation in general.

New photonic chip for isolating light may be key to miniaturizing quantum devices

Light plays a critical role in enabling 21st century quantum information applications. Limited by size, engineers need to miniaturize quantum devices, which requires re-thinking certain components for harnessing light. Researchers have designed a simple, compact photonic circuit that uses sound waves to rein in light. The team's measurements show that their approach to isolation currently...

Two beams are better than one

History's greatest couples rely on communication to make them so strong their power cannot be denied. But that's not just true for people, it's also true for lasers. According to new research from the USC Viterbi School of Engineering, adding two lasers together as a sort of optical 'it couple' promises to make wireless communications faster and more secure than ever before.

A new Earth bombardment model

A team has updated its asteroid bombardment model of the Earth with the latest geologic evidence of ancient, large collisions. These models have been used to understand how impacts may have affected oxygen levels in the Earth's atmosphere in the Archean eon, 2.5 to 4 billion years ago.


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First dinosaur era crab fully preserved in amber discovered

Researchers describe the first crab from the Cretaceous dinosaur era preserved in amber. The study used micro CT to examine and describe Cretapsara athanata, the oldest modern-looking crab (approximately 100 million years old) and the most complete fossil crab ever discovered.

How an enriched environment fires up our synapses

Processing of sensory impressions and information depends very much on how the synapses in our brain work. A team has now shown how lipid and protein regulation impact brain's processing of a beautiful and stimulating environment. The lipids located in the membranes of the synapses are central to signal transmission, the researchers report.

Termite brains can grow in anticipation of a single moment of flight and light

In a dampwood termite colony only a select few will, quite literally, see the light. The insects are unique due to their mating flights and the adaptability of their role within the colony, which is based on the overall needs of the group. King and queen termites must leave the nest and are the only members to go outside -- briefly --to partner off and tunnel into a new location to start another...

Quantum material to boost terahertz frequencies

They are regarded as one of the most interesting materials for future electronics: Topological insulators conduct electricity in a special way and hold the promise of novel circuits and faster mobile communications. A research team has now unraveled a fundamental property of this new class of materials: How exactly do the electrons in the material respond when they are 'startled' by short pulses...

Researchers make hardened wooden knives that slice through steak

The sharpest knives available are made of either steel or ceramic, both of which are human-made materials that must be forged in furnaces under extreme temperatures. Now, researchers have developed a potentially more sustainable way to make sharp knives: using hardened wood. The method makes wood 23 times harder and a knife made from the material is nearly three times sharper than a...

Europeans in the Americas 1000 years ago

The Vikings were active in North America in the year 1021 AD. This now represents the earliest -- and only -- known year in which Europeans were present in the Americas prior to the arrival of Columbus in 1492 AD. It also represents a definitive point in time by which the Atlantic Ocean had been traversed and human migration had finally encircled the globe.

Origin of domestic horses finally established

The modern horse was domesticated around 2200 years BCE in the northern Caucasus. In the centuries that followed it spread throughout Asia and Europe. An international team of 162 scientists collected, sequenced and compared 273 genomes from ancient horses scattered across Eurasia to come up with this finding.

Humans did not cause woolly mammoths to go extinct -- climate change did

Humans did not cause woolly mammoths to go extinct -- climate change did. For five million years, woolly mammoths roamed the earth until they vanished for good nearly 4,000 years ago -- and scientists have finally proved why. The hairy cousins of today's elephants lived alongside early humans and were a regular staple of their diet -- their skeletons were used to build shelters, harpoons were...

Lightweight electric wristband heaters for constant, portable warmth

As the fall chill settles in across the U.S., people are getting out their cozy sweaters and electric blankets, or stocking up on handheld heat packets for extra warmth. But sweaters and blankets are bulky, and heat packs only work for a little while. Now, researchers demonstrate a conductive, durable yarn for lightweight wearable heaters that are re-usable and provide constant, portable warmth.

Plugging into ocean waves with a flexible, seaweed-like generator

Ocean waves can be powerful, containing enough energy to push around sand, pebbles and even boulders during storms. These waves, as well as smaller, more gentle ones, could be tapped as a source of renewable energy. Now, researchers have developed flexible power generators that mimic the way seaweed sways to efficiently convert surface and underwater waves into electricity to power marine-based...

Urban wastes used as fertilizers contain higher PFAS than livestock manure

Because of their useful surfactant properties, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been massively produced for non-stick coatings, water-repellant fabrics and firefighting foams. However, scientists have detected these highly stable 'forever chemicals' throughout the environment, prompting toxicity concerns. Now, researchers have characterized PFAS in contemporary and historical...

AI helping to quantify enzyme activity

Enzymes are biological catalysts that facilitate biochemical transformations. An international team of bioinformatics researchers has developed a new process for predicting Michaelis constants, which determine reaction kinetics.

New study characterizes the gut virome

A new study has added numerous previously uncharacterized viral genomes and genes to the ever-increasing worldwide pool of human gut viromes. The study will prove helpful in investigating the role of the gut virome in human health and disease.