748,504 articles

Some roads and playgrounds in North Dakota contain cancer causing erionite

What would you do if you found out that the roads you drive on could cause cancer? This is the reality that residents face in Dunn County, North Dakota. For roughly 30 years, gravel containing the potentially carcinogenic mineral erionite was spread on nearly 500 kilometers of roads, playgrounds, parking lots, and even flower beds throughout Dunn...

Stellar astrophysics: The discovery of deceleration

Pulsars are among the most exotic celestial bodies known. They have diameters of about 20 kilometres, but at the same time roughly the mass of our sun. A sugar-cube sized piece of its ultra-compact matter on Earth would weigh hundreds of millions of tons. A sub-class of them, known as millisecond pulsars, spin up to several hundred times per second around their own axes. Previous studies reached...

Food poisoning: Understanding how bacteria come back from the 'dead'

Salmonella remains a serious cause of food poisoning, in part due to its ability to thrive and quickly adapt to the different environments in which it can grow. New research has taken a detailed look at what Salmonella does when it enters a new environment, which could provide clues to finding new ways of reducing transmission through the food chain and preventing human...

Yellow Biotechnology: Using plants to silence insect genes in a high-throughput manner

Scientists are now using a procedure which brings forward ecological research on insects: They study gene functions in moth larvae by manipulating genes using the RNA interference technology (RNAi). RNAi is induced by feeding larvae with plants that have been treated with viral vectors. This method called "plant virus based dsRNA producing system" increases sample throughput compared to the use of...

Gene regulator in brain's executive hub tracked across lifespan

Scientists have tracked the activity, across the lifespan, of an environmentally responsive regulatory mechanism that turns genes on and off in the brain's executive hub. Genes implicated in schizophrenia and autism are among those in which regulatory activity peaks during an environmentally-sensitive critical period in development. The mechanism, called DNA methylation, abruptly switches from off...

Identical twins reveal mechanisms behind aging

Researchers compared the DNA of identical twins at different ages. They showed that structural modifications of the DNA, where large or small DNA segments change direction, are duplicated or completely lost, are more common in older people. The results may in part explain why the immune system is impaired with...

Why red wine can be healthy: Probable mechanism underlying resveratrol activity uncovered

Researchers have identified how resveratrol, a naturally occurring chemical found in red wine and other plant products, may confer its health benefits. The authors present evidence that resveratrol does not directly activate sirtuin 1, a protein associated with aging. Rather, the authors found that resveratrol inhibits certain types of proteins known as phosphodiesterases (PDEs), enzymes that help...

Coffee consumption reduces fibrosis risk in those with fatty liver disease, study suggests

Caffeine consumption has long been associated with decreased risk of liver disease and reduced fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease. Now, new research confirms that coffee caffeine consumption reduces the risk of advanced fibrosis in those with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. New findings show that increased coffee intake, specifically among patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis,...

Graphene electronics moves into a third dimension

Wonder material graphene has been touted as the next silicon, with one major problem – it is too conductive to be used in computer chips. Now scientists have given its prospects a new lifeline. Scientists have now literally opened a third dimension in graphene research. Their research shows a transistor that may prove the missing link for graphene to become the next...

Hubble zooms in on a magnified galaxy

Astronomers aimed Hubble at one of the most striking examples of gravitational lensing, a nearly 90-degree arc of light in the galaxy cluster RCS2 032727-132623. Hubble's view of the distant background galaxy, which lies nearly 10 billion light-years away, is significantly more detailed than could ever be achieved without the help of the gravitational...

As IPO Nears, Facebook Paywall Seen as Unlikely

As Facebook heads toward its IPO destiny on Wall Street, speculation grows over whether the world's leading social network can and will continue to offer its service for free. The company has long boasted that it's "free and always will be," even featuring that phrase on its sign-up page. Meeting Expectations But will that change when investors start demanding even bigger returns than...

Balancing oxaliplatin dose with neurological side effects in metastatic colon cancer

The drug oxaliplatin is a major reason the prognosis for metastatic colon cancer has gone from an expected survival of several months to a couple years. Unfortunately, the drug can also carry with it debilitating neurological side effects, which generally start as the sensation of pins and needles in fingers and toes and can leave patients unable to walk or dress independently.