Nobody at home: A great increase in out-of-home rates over 28 years in Kumamoto, Japan

Delivery services have increased rapidly with the expansion of online shopping and, in Japan, failed deliveries that result in redelivery attempts occur 20% of the time. In terms of labor, fuel, and environmental (increased CO2 emissions) costs, empty homes causing redeliveries have become an issue. Until now, long-term trends of households with every member out-of-home has not been fully clarified.