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206,592 articles from PhysOrg

Deep-sea misconceptions cause underestimation of seabed-mining impacts

A new publication on the impacts of deep-seabed mining by 13 prominent deep-sea biologists, led by University of Hawai'i at Mānoa oceanography professor Craig Smith, seeks to dispel scientific misconceptions that have led to miscalculations of the likely effects of commercial operations to extract minerals from the seabed.

Highly sensitive dopamine detector uses 2-D materials

A supersensitive dopamine detector can help in the early diagnosis of several disorders that result in too much or too little dopamine, according to a group led by Penn State and including Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and universities in China and Japan.

Programmable synthetic materials

Artificial molecules could one day form the information unit of a new type of computer or be the basis for programmable substances. The information would be encoded in the spatial arrangement of the individual atoms—similar to how the sequence of base pairs determines the information content of DNA, or sequences of zeros and ones form the memory of computers.

Scientists develop principles for the creation of an 'acoustic diode'

In research published in Science Advances, a group led by scientists from the RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS) have used the principle of magneto-rotation coupling to suppress the transmission of sound waves on the surface of a film in one direction while allowing them to travel in the other. This could lead to the development of acoustic rectifiers—devices that allow waves to...

Why do so many refugees move after arrival? Opportunity and community

What do you think of when you hear the word "refugee"? For many people, what comes to mind is vulnerability—you might imagine the grim conditions of a refugee camp or the dangers of the desperate journey to safety. So perhaps it's unsurprising that refugees are widely perceived to be especially needy or dependent on public assistance.

NASA sounding rocket finds helium structures in sun's atmosphere

Helium is the second most abundant element in the universe after hydrogen. But scientists aren't sure just how much there actually is in the Sun's atmosphere, where it is hard to measure. Knowing the amount of helium in the solar atmosphere is important to understanding the origin and acceleration of the solar wind—the constant stream of charged particles from the Sun.

Cluster's 20 years of studying Earth's magnetosphere

Despite a nominal lifetime of two years, ESA's Cluster is now entering its third decade in space. This unique four-spacecraft mission has been revealing the secrets of Earth's magnetic environment since 2000 and, with 20 years of observations under its belt, is still enabling new discoveries as it explores our planet's relationship with the Sun.

ESA's 'first' satellite: COS-B

This weekend sees the 45th anniversary of the launch of Cos-B, the first satellite to be launched under the banner of the newly created European Space Agency, on 9 August 1975.

A titanate nanowire mask that can eliminate pathogens

Filter 'paper' made from titanium oxide nanowires is capable of trapping pathogens and destroying them with light. This discovery by an EPFL laboratory could be put to use in personal protective equipment, as well as in ventilation and air conditioning systems.

Stellar egg hunt with ALMA—Tracing evolution from embryo to baby star

Astronomers using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) took a census of stellar eggs in the constellation Taurus and revealed their evolution state. This census helps researchers understand how and when a stellar embryo transforms to a baby star deep inside a gaseous egg. In addition, the team found a bipolar outflow, a pair of gas streams, that could be telltale evidence of a...

Better precipitation forecasts up to several hours in advance

Where, when and how much precipitation is expected? Information on precipitation not only crucial for water management and agriculture, but also for events, road traffic, aviation and other sectors of the economy. While weather models have gotten better over the decades, predicting the exact location and amount of rainfall remains challenging, even for just a few hours in advance. Deltares,...

Electric cars won't save us if the numbers don't add up—economist

Electric cars are one of the fastest growing sectors of the automotive industry. Record sales are being made despite the economic crisis posed by the coronavirus pandemic. Seven years ago, there were only 3500 plug-in cars in the UK—there are now 300,000. Almost 120,000 of them run purely on battery power. Many view the current period, even though it coincides with the pandemic, as a watershed...

Measuring electron emission from irradiated biomolecules

When fast-moving ions cross paths with large biomolecules, the resulting collisions produce many low-energy electrons which can go on to ionize the molecules even further. To fully understand how biological structures are affected by this radiation, it is important for physicists to measure how electrons are scattered during collisions. So far, however, researchers' understanding of the process...

Making N-C bonds directly from dinitrogen: Summary and perspective

As the most abundant constituent in Earth's atmosphere, dinitrogen (N2) is the main nitrogen source of N-containing compounds in the Earth. Therefore, N2 fixation and activation are essential both for nature and humans. Nevertheless, the high bond dissociation energy (942 kJ/mol) and large HOMO-LUMO gap (10.82 eV) make N2 exhibit extremely low reactivity and may be regarded as an inert gas.