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15,090 articles from ScienceNOW

Deregulation of ribosomal protein expression and translation promotes breast cancer metastasis

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are shed into the bloodstream from primary tumors, but only a small subset of these cells generates metastases. We conducted an in vivo genome-wide CRISPR activation screen in CTCs from breast cancer patients to identify genes that promote distant metastasis in mice. Genes coding for ribosomal proteins and regulators of translation were enriched in this screen....

Flux-induced topological superconductivity in full-shell nanowires

Hybrid semiconductor-superconductor nanowires have emerged as a promising platform for realizing topological superconductivity (TSC). Here, we present a route to TSC using magnetic flux applied to a full superconducting shell surrounding a semiconducting nanowire core. Tunneling into the core reveals a hard induced gap near zero applied flux, corresponding to zero phase winding, and a gapped...

Frequency-comb spectroscopy on pure quantum states of a single molecular ion

Spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying molecules and is commonly performed on large thermal molecular ensembles that are perturbed by motional shifts and interactions with the environment and one another, resulting in convoluted spectra and limited resolution. Here, we use quantum-logic techniques to prepare a trapped molecular ion in a single quantum state, drive terahertz rotational...

Interglacial instability of North Atlantic Deep Water ventilation

Disrupting North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) ventilation is a key concern in climate projections. We use (sub)centennially resolved bottom water 13C records that span the interglacials of the last 0.5 million years to assess the frequency of and the climatic backgrounds capable of triggering large NADW reductions. Episodes of reduced NADW in the deep Atlantic, similar in magnitude to glacial...

Last Interglacial Iberian Neandertals as fisher-hunter-gatherers

Marine food–reliant subsistence systems such as those in the African Middle Stone Age (MSA) were not thought to exist in Europe until the much later Mesolithic. Whether this apparent lag reflects taphonomic biases or behavioral distinctions between archaic and modern humans remains much debated. Figueira Brava cave, in the Arrábida range (Portugal), provides an exceptionally well...

No consistent ENSO response to volcanic forcing over the last millennium

The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) shapes global climate patterns yet its sensitivity to external climate forcing remains uncertain. Modeling studies suggest that ENSO is sensitive to sulfate aerosol forcing associated with explosive volcanism but observational support for this effect remains ambiguous. Here, we used absolutely dated fossil corals from the central tropical...

Observation of dynamical fermionization

The wave function of a Tonks-Girardeau (T-G) gas of strongly interacting bosons in one dimension maps onto the absolute value of the wave function of a noninteracting Fermi gas. Although this fermionization makes many aspects of the two gases identical, their equilibrium momentum distributions are quite different. We observed dynamical fermionization, where the momentum distribution of a T-G gas...

Peptide signaling for drought-induced tomato flower drop

The premature abscission of flowers and fruits limits crop yield under environmental stress. Drought-induced flower drop in tomato plants was found to be regulated by phytosulfokine (PSK), a peptide hormone previously known for its growth-promoting and immune-modulating activities. PSK formation in response to drought stress depends on phytaspase 2, a subtilisin-like protease of the phytaspase...

Structural basis for the recognition of SARS-CoV-2 by full-length human ACE2

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the cellular receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome–coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that is causing the serious coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. Here, we present cryo–electron microscopy structures of full-length human ACE2 in the presence of the neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1 with or...

The dark matter interpretation of the 3.5-keV line is inconsistent with blank-sky observations

Observations of nearby galaxies and galaxy clusters have reported an unexpected x-ray emission line around 3.5 kilo–electron volts (keV). Proposals to explain this line include decaying dark matter—in particular, that the decay of sterile neutrinos with a mass around 7 keV could match the available data. If this interpretation is correct, the 3.5-keV line should also be emitted by dark...

The evolutionary dynamics and fitness landscape of clonal hematopoiesis

Somatic mutations acquired in healthy tissues as we age are major determinants of cancer risk. Whether variants confer a fitness advantage or rise to detectable frequencies by chance remains largely unknown. Blood sequencing data from ~50,000 individuals reveal how mutation, genetic drift, and fitness shape the genetic diversity of healthy blood (clonal hematopoiesis). We show that positive...

The historical roots of economic development

This article reviews an emerging area of research within economics that seeks to better understand contemporary economic outcomes by taking a historical perspective. The field has established that many of the contemporary differences in comparative economic development have their roots in the distant past. The insights gained from this literature are not only of academic importance but also useful...

Type-II Ising pairing in few-layer stanene

Spin-orbit coupling has proven indispensable in the realization of topological materials and, more recently, Ising pairing in two-dimensional superconductors. This pairing mechanism relies on inversion symmetry–breaking and sustains anomalously large in-plane polarizing magnetic fields whose upper limit is predicted to diverge at low temperatures. Here, we show that the recently discovered...

Ultrahigh-field 67Zn NMR reveals short-range disorder in zeolitic imidazolate framework glasses

The structure of melt-quenched zeolitic imidazole framework (ZIF) glasses can provide insights into their glass-formation mechanism. We directly detected short-range disorder in ZIF glasses using ultrahigh-field zinc-67 solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Two distinct Zn sites characteristic of the parent crystals transformed upon melting into a single tetrahedral site with a...