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131,939 articles from ScienceDaily

Curve at tip of shoes eases movement but may lead to weaker muscles, problems

The scientists found that the more curved a toe spring is, the less power the foot inside the shoe has to exert when pushing off from the ground while walking. That means foot muscles are doing less work, and this, the researchers hypothesize, may have consequences such as less endurance and make people more susceptible to medical conditions like plantar fasciitis.

Scientists 'scent train' honeybees to boost sunflowers' seed production

If you want a dog to hunt something down, it helps to let them sniff an item to pick up the scent. Now, researchers have found that scent training honeybees might work in a similar way -- and that this approach could make bees more efficient in pollinating crops. The findings show that honeybees given food scented with sunflower odors led to a significant increase in sunflower crop production.

Quizzes improve academic performance

Students who are quizzed over class material at least once a week tend to perform better on midterm and final exams compared to students who did not take quizzes, according to a new meta-analysis. The researchers found in addition to frequency, immediate feedback from instructors also seemed to positively impact student performance.

New mathematical tool can select the best sensors for the job

In the 2019 Boeing 737 Max crash, the recovered black box from the aftermath hinted that a failed pressure sensor may have caused the ill-fated aircraft to nose dive. This incident and others have fueled a larger debate on sensor selection, number and placement to prevent the reoccurrence of such tragedies. Researchers have now developed a comprehensive mathematical framework that can help...

Genetic adaptation to climate change is swift in crop pests

By comparing genetic variants differing in the two fly populations, researchers found that polygenic traits led to the quickness of adaptation; many genes, each with very small effects, worked together to determine the rate of development. The research illustrates that crop pests and insect disease vectors with similar biology may rapidly respond to changing climates by a similar genetic...

Algorithms uncover cancers' hidden genetic losses and gains

Limitations in DNA sequencing technology make it difficult to detect some major mutations often linked to cancer, such as the loss or duplication of parts of chromosomes. Now, methods developed by computer scientists will allow researchers to more accurately identify these mutations in cancerous tissue, yielding a clearer picture of the evolution and spread of tumors than was previously possible.


THURSDAY 17. SEPTEMBER 2020


Shedding light on the development of efficient blue-emitting semiconductors

Scientists have discovered a new alkali copper halide, Cs5Cu3Cl6I2, that emits pure blue light. The combination of the two halide ions, chloride and iodide, gives the material a crystalline structure made of zigzag chains and peculiar properties that result in highly efficient photoluminescence. This novel compound could be readily used to produce relatively inexpensive and eco-friendly white LEDs...

Curbing land clearing for food production is vital to reverse biodiversity declines

Preserving terrestrial biodiversity requires more ambitious land-conservation targets to be established and met. At the same time, 'bending the curve' on biodiversity loss needs more efficient food production, and healthier and less wasteful consumption and trade. If undertaken with 'unprecedented ambition and coordination,' these efforts provide an opportunity to reverse terrestrial biodiversity...

Sugar promotes sperm longevity in pig reproductive tract

For many livestock species, artificial insemination (AI) is standard. But it can be tricky to achieve success the first time, thanks to variability in ovulation timing across the herd. A new study identifies a naturally occurring sugar that slows the maturation of sperm in pigs, opening up the possibility of extending sperm storage time within the female reproductive tract and increasing the...

Europe's old-growth forests at risk

A new study presents the first comprehensive assessment of the conservation status of primary forests in Europe -- and shows that many of them are not protected and at risk of being destroyed. The researchers conclude that formal conservation of these forests should be a top priority for countries to meet their climate change and biodiversity goals.

How much will polar ice sheets add to sea level rise?

Over 99% of terrestrial ice is bound up in the ice sheets covering Antarctic and Greenland. Even partial melting of this ice due to climate change will significantly contribute to sea level rise. But how much exactly? For the first time ever, glaciologists, oceanographers, and climatologists from 13 countries have teamed up to make new projections.

Keys to control the 'driver of cancer's aggressiveness'

A dangerous protein named SNAI2 helps cancers metastasize and shields cancer from both the immune system and chemotherapy. Worse, SNAI2 is in a family of proteins that are notoriously hard to fight with drugs. But now researchers have found a way to use the cell's recycling system to control SNAI2, providing a new possibility for treatments.

Understanding the movement patterns of free-swimming marine snails

New research looks at the swimming and sinking kinematics of nine species of warm water pteropods (sea snails) to shed light on their ecology, predator-prey interactions, and vertical distributions. By using a high-speed stereophotogrammetry system, investigators were able to focus on how the shell shape, body geometry, and body size affect their swimming behavior from a fluid mechanics...