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167,133 articles from ScienceDaily


TUESDAY 20. FEBRUARY 2024


Gulf corals still suffering more than a decade after Deepwater Horizon oil spill, scientists report

Deep-water corals in the Gulf of Mexico are still struggling to recover from the devastating Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, scientists report at the Ocean Science Meeting in New Orleans. Comparing images of more than 300 corals over 13 years -- the longest time series of deep-sea corals to date -- reveals that in some areas, coral health continues to decline to this day.

Mapping potential pathways to MND treatment

Researchers have mapped out the proteins implicated in the early stages of motor neurone disease (MND). They have developed a longitudinal map of the proteins involved in MND across the trajectory of the disease, identifying potential therapeutic pathways for further investigation.

Where neural stem cells feel at home

Researchers have created an artificial cell environment that could promote the regeneration of nerves. Usually, injuries to the brain or spinal cord don't heal easily due to the formation of fluid-filled cavities and scars that prevent tissue regeneration. One starting point for medical research is therefore to fill the cavities with a substance that offers neural stem cells optimal conditions for...

The cultural evolution of collective property rights

Common pool resources comprise around 65 percent of Earth's surface and vast tracts of the ocean. While examples of successful governance of these resources exist, the circumstances and mechanisms behind their development have remained unclear. Researchers have developed a simulation model to examine the emergence, stability and temporal dynamics of collective property rights.

It's the spin that makes the difference

Biomolecules such as amino acids and sugars occur in two mirror-image forms -- in all living organisms, however, only one is ever found. Why this is the case is still unclear. Researchers have now found evidence that the interplay between electric and magnetic fields could be at the origin of this phenomenon.

Junk DNA in birds may hold key to safe, efficient gene therapy

For many genetic diseases, disabling or editing a gene using CRISPR is insufficient to overcome the effects of the underlying genetic mutation. A corrective gene needs to be added to the genome to fix the problem. Researchers have discovered a way to use a bird retrotransposon -- a type of junk DNA -- to insert whole transgenes into the human genome in a targeted way that does not risk damaging...

Physicists develop more efficient solar cell

Physicists have used complex computer simulations to develop a new design for significantly more efficient solar cells than previously available. A thin layer of organic material, known as tetracene, is responsible for the increase in efficiency.

The immune system's moonlighters

Scientists have discovered that the immune system stalwart I B has a moonlighting gig. A tiny protein sequence within I B activates another family of key immune proteins called POUs. The discovery may point to a new drug target for various autoimmune disorders.

Generating 'buzz' about new products can influence their success

The way companies announce new products or build up hype can often influence their success once those new products hit the market, according to new research. Whether it's an upcoming blockbuster movie or a new rollout from major companies like Coca-Cola or Apple, the new research shows how companies might use this type of pre-announcement marketing to their advantage.

New non-toxic method for producing high-quality graphene oxide

Researchers have found a new way to synthesize graphene oxide which has significantly fewer defects compared to materials produced by most common method. Similarly good graphene oxide could be synthesized previously only using rather dangerous method involving extremely toxic fuming nitric acid.

Artificial reefs help preserve coral reefs by shifting divers away from the natural ones, according to new long-term study of one in Eilat

Divers are essentially tourists who love coral reefs and invest a lot of time and effort to watch them. Unfortunately, divers also cause damage to corals, often unintentionally, through disturbing and resuspending sand, touching them, hitting them with their equipment, and scaring fish away. Artificial reefs have been proposed as a means of diverting diving pressure from the natural reef to...

Could ultra-processed foods be the new 'silent' killer?

Hundreds of novel ingredients never encountered by human physiology are now found in nearly 60 percent of the average adult's diet and nearly 70 percent of children's diets in the U.S. An emerging health hazard is the unprecedented consumption of these ultra-processed foods in the standard American diet. This may be the new 'silent' killer, as was unrecognized high blood pressure in previous...

Nature's checkup: Surveying biodiversity with environmental DNA sequencing

A thousand kilometers south of Tokyo, far into the largest ocean on Earth, lies a chain of small, volcanic islands -- the Ogasawara Islands. Nature has been able to develop on its own terms here, far from both humans and the warm Kuroshio current, which acts like a shuttle, moving marine species from Taiwan, over the Ryukyu Islands, and up the Pacific coast of mainland Japan. With upwards of 70 %...