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129,361 articles from ScienceDaily

Packaging Where Nothing Sticks

Shaking and tapping is often the only way to get the last drop of ketchup out of the bottle. But in future, even this final drop will slide out easily onto the barbecued steak -- thanks to a special coating on the packaging. We all know the problem with ketchup or mayonnaise: No matter how we shake or tap the bottle, some of the content refuses to come out. In some cases, up to 20 percent is left...

Pressure Sensors In The Eye

Sensors can monitor production processes, unmask tiny cracks in aircraft hulls, and determine the amount of laundry in a washing machine. In future, they will also be used in the human body and raise the alarm in the event of high pressure in the eye, bladder or brain. If the pressure in the eye is too high, nerve fibers die, resulting in visual field loss or blindness. Since increased intraocular...

Silicon As Smooth As Glass: Boon To Computer Chip And Solar Cell Manufacturing

Without silicon there would be no computer industry since most computer chips consist of this semiconductor material. The same is true for solar cells: They too are predominantly silicon-based. The monocrystals are cut in round slices approximately one millimeter thick, which experts call wafers. Their surfaces must be as smooth as glass; irregularities may only be a few nanometers wide, i.e. less...

Studying Evidence From Ice Age Lakes

During the last Ice Age, the ice dammed enormous lakes in Russia. The drainage system was reversed several times and the rivers flowed southwards. A group of geologists is now investigating what took place when the ice melted and the lakes released huge volumes of fresh water into the Arctic Ocean. "The ice-dammed lakes in Russia were larger than the largest lakes we know today," according to...

Using Evolution, Scientists Creates A Template For Many New Therapeutic Agents

By guiding an enzyme down a new evolutionary pathway, researchers have created a new form of an enzyme capable of producing a range of potential new therapeutic agents with anti-cancer and antibiotic properties. They describes a novel enzyme capable of changing the chemical properties of a variety of existing drugs and small molecules to make new agents to treat cancer and fight infection.


SATURDAY 8. SEPTEMBER 2007


Polar Bear Population Predicted To Dwindle WIth Retreating Ice

Future reduction of sea ice in the Arctic could result in a loss of 2/3 of the world's polar bear population within 50 years according to a series of studies just released by the U.S. Geological Survey. Polar bears depend on sea ice as a platform to hunt seals, their primary food. But sea ice is decreasing throughout their Arctic range due to climate change. Models used by the USGS team project a...

Teen Suicide Rate: Highest Increase In 15 Years

A new CDC report shows the largest one-year increase in youth suicide rate in 15 years. Suicide rates for 10-19 year-old females and 15-19 year-old males increased significantly in 2004 in the United States. An increase in the suicide rates for three gender-age groups accounts for the increase in the overall suicide rate, the report said. Rates rose for 10- to-14-year-old females, 15...

Supercomputing By Reservation Puts Petaflops At Researchers' Fingertips

Supercomputers keep growing ever faster, racing along at the blazing speed of nearly one petaflops -- 10 to the fifteenth, or one thousand trillion calculations per second -- equivalent to around 250 thousand of today's laptops. In contrast, the experience of a computational scientist can be anything but fast -- waiting hours or days in a queue for a job to run and yield precious results needed...

Antioxidants: Preventing Diseases, Naturally

When it comes to boosting antioxidant intake, recent research indicates there's little benefit from taking diet supplements. A better way, according to a report in the September issue of Mayo Clinic Health Letter, is eating a diet rich in antioxidant-containing foods. Antioxidants such as vitamins C and E, carotene, lycopene, lutein and many other substances may play a role in helping to prevent...

Bog Mummies Yield Secrets

Human remains yield secrets. Researchers are now probing the secrets of 'bog mummies' some dating back 2000 years, preserved from the Iron Age with amazing detail in peat bogs of Europe. Bog mummies have particularly interesting stories to tell. Physical anthropologists draw conclusions from the eerily preserved hair, leathery skin and other features that emerge from the bogs.

Migraines: Options To Prevent And Treat The Pounding Pain

Migraines are more than a bad headache. As nearly 30 million Americans can attest, the throbbing pain of a migraine can be debilitating, lasting from a few hours to several days. The condition can be aggravated by light, sounds, odors, exercise, even routine physical activities. Nausea, with or without vomiting, may occur. Fortunately, treatment helps most people who have migraines.

Nanotechnology Identifies Peptide 'Fingerprint' In Both Forms Of ALS

A nanotechnology developed by a University at Buffalo professor has enabled researchers to identify a molecular signature common to both familial and sporadic cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or Lou Gehrig's disease. It is the first time that a common molecular signature has been found in patients with both familial and sporadic cases, where no other family members have the disease,...

Immunosuppressive Drugs Are A Double-edged Sword To Type 1 Diabetics

Type 1 diabetes occurs when immune cells destroy pancreatic insulin producing beta-cells. It was hoped that islet transplantation would provide a cure for the disease, however, transplant success is short-lived and accompanied by significant side effects. New data indicate that the immunosuppressive drugs used to prevent islet transplant rejection suppress beta-cell regeneration in diabetic mice,...


FRIDAY 7. SEPTEMBER 2007


Widely Held Beliefs About Early Cherokee Settlement Patterns Likely Incorrect

By 1763, the world of Cherokee Indians in the Southeastern U.S. was in tatters. The French and Indian War had wracked the sprawling Cherokee settlements that stretched from the headwaters of the Savannah River in South Carolina and Georgia to the Overhills towns in eastern Tennessee. Though 75 years would pass before the Trail of Tears would banish the remnants of the nation west to Oklahoma, the...

How To Enhance Muscle Function

Skeletal muscle is composed of two types of muscle fiber, slow and fast, which have different capabilities -- slow fibers do not tire easily and are high endurance, whereas fast fibers tire easily and are low endurance. The relative amount of each fiber type is determined by muscle usage -- exercise training causes fast fibers to become slow fibers, whereas inactivity that results in muscle...

Microfluidic Chambers Advance The Science Of Growing Neurons

Researchers have developed a method for culturing mammalian neurons in chambers not much larger than the neurons themselves. The new approach extends the lifespan of the neurons at very low densities, an essential step toward developing a method for studying the growth and behavior of individual brain cells.

Genes Associated With Schizophrenia Evolved Rapidly Due To Selection During Human Evolution

Several genes with strong associations to schizophrenia have evolved rapidly due to selection during human evolution, according to new research. Researchers found a higher prevalence of the influence of so-called positive selection on genes or gene regions known to be associated with the disorder than a comparable control set of non-associated genes, functioning in similar neuronal processes. This...

Computer Scientists Take The 'Why' Out Of WiFi

UCSD computer scientists have designed a system that automatically analyzes the behavior of all the WiFi connections in the UCSD computer science building. "In the end, we can say 'it's because of this that your wireless is slow or has stopped working' -- and we can tell you immediately," said one of the computer science professors working on the research.

Computerized Treatment Of Manuscripts

Researchers working on the automatic recognition of manuscript documents have designed a new system that is more efficient and reliable than currently existing ones. The BSM ("Blurred Shape Model") has been designed to work with ancient, damaged or difficult to read manuscripts, handwritten scores and architectural drawings. It represents at the same time an effective human machine interface in...

'Rain Man' Mice Provide Model For Autism

Mice containing a mutated human gene implicated in autism exhibit the poor social skills but increased intelligence akin to the title character's traits in the movie "Rain Man," researchers have found. The researchers' study also shows how the mutation affects nerve function and provides an animal model that might allow further study of the debilitating condition.

'Wiki City Rome' To Draw A Map Like No Other

Residents of Italy's capital will glimpse the future of urban mapmaking with the launch of "Wiki City Rome," a project developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology that uses data from cellphones and other wireless technology to illustrate the city's pulse in real time. The project will debut Sept. 8 during Rome's "Notte Bianca" or white night, an all-night festival of events across the...