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144,192 articles from ScienceDaily

Cluster And Double Star Uncover More On Bright Aurorae

Cluster data has helped provide scientists with a new view of magnetospheric processes, challenging existing theories about magnetic substorms that cause aurorae and perturbations in GPS signals. The onset of magnetic substorms that originate in Earth’s magnetosphere has been explained by two competing models: current disruption and near-earth reconnection. Current beliefs have been...

Diesel Exhaust Kills Throat Cells, Study Shows

Diesel exhaust is far more damaging to our health than exhaust from biodiesel, the plant-based fuel, according to a new study. As it is not possible to study in real time what happens in the real human airway, the researchers conducted their research on human airway cells grown in a culture. The cells were exposed to the particulate matter emitted in diesel and biodiesel exhaust fumes.

Drug Spending Caps Cause Some Seniors To Quit Taking Key Medicines

Many seniors quit taking drugs for chronic illnesses such as diabetes and high blood pressure when they exceed their drug plan's yearly spending limits, according to a new study. The report, which examines the behavior of seniors enrolled in a private health plan, provides insight into how seniors may act under provisions of Medicare's new drug benefit plan that will leave about one-third of...

Ethical Issues Of Scientific Research In Developing World Examined

The first comprehensive examination of the ethical, social and cultural (ESC) challenges faced by major science programs in developing countries has identified a complex assortment of issues with the potential to slow critical global health research if left unaddressed. They range from problems such as government corruption to complex questions surrounding community and public engagement, cultural...

Gay Or Straight? Body Type And Motion Reveals Sexual Orientation, Study Suggests

An individual's body motion and body type can offer subtle cues about their sexual orientation, but casual observers seem better able to read those cues in gay men than in lesbians, according to a new study. Based on measurements, the researchers determined that the gay subjects tended to have more gender-incongruent body types than their straight counterparts (hourglass figures for men, tubular...

Glaucoma Surgery In The Blink Of An Eye

Scientists are testing a new laser surgery device specifically designed to make glaucoma procedures safer, simpler and faster. The revolutionary non-penetrating technique will be easily mastered by most eye surgeons, thereby making it more accessible and less risky for glaucoma sufferers. Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness in the West.

Health Food Supplement May Curb Addiction Of Pathological Gamblers

Researchers have discovered that a common amino acid, available as a health food supplement, may help curb pathological gamblers' addiction. Results are encouraging for other addictions, too. In a recent eight-week trial, 27 people were given increasing doses of a specific amino acid which has an impact on the chemical glutamate -- often associated with reward in the brain. At the end of the...

New Approach To Fighting Obesity And Diabetes: Analyze Starches

World-first equipment will determine how to produce food which is better for us, but still tastes good. The researchers said that while an unhealthy lifestyle and poor eating habits were significant factors in Australia's obesity and diabetes epidemics, they were not entirely to blame. Another component is changes in starches in our food.

New Clues To Breast Cancer Development In High-risk Women

Physicians who treat women with the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 often remove their patients' ovaries to eliminate the source of estrogen they believe fuels cancer growth. Yet they also know that anti-estrogen therapies don't work to treat breast or ovarian cancer that might develop. That paradox has led scientists to question exactly how, or if, estrogen is involved in cancer...

Prescription Labels Geared Toward Pharmacies, Not Patients

The labels on most prescription drug containers highlight the pharmacy's name or logo rather than instructions on how to take the medication, reports a new study. All of the labels listed the pharmacy name first, and instructions appeared fifth on 89 percent of labels. When color font or boldface was present, it was most often for pharmacy information rather than for instructions or warnings.

Primate Behavior Explained By Computer 'Agents'

The complex behavior of primates can be understood using artificially-intelligent computer "agents" that mimic their actions, shows new research. Scientists using agents programmed with simple instructions to work out why some primate groups are 'despotic' whilst others are 'egalitarian' - overturning previous theories developed by primatologists.

Rare Dolphin Driven To Extinction By Human Activities, Scientists Fear

An international research team, including biologists from NOAA Fisheries Service has failed to find a single Yangtze River dolphin, or baiji, during a six-week survey in China. The scientists fear the marine mammal is now extinct due to fishing and commercial development, which would make it the first cetacean to vanish as result of human activity.

Transforming Mouse Cells Into 'Embryonic' Stem Cells Easily

Scientists are reporting what they say is a significant improvement in the technique for genetically reprogramming mouse cells to their embryonic state, a process that transforms the cells, in essence, into embryonic stem cells. Scientists are interested in reprogramming because of its potential for developing human embryonic stem cells that contain the genetic makeup of individual patients. In...

Who's Afraid Of The Big, Bad Wolf? Coyotes

While the wily coyote reigns as top dog in much of the country, it leads a nervous existence wherever it coexists with its larger relative, the wolf, according to a new study. In fact, coyote densities are more than 30 percent lower in areas that they share with wolves.

'Lung On A Chip' And Other Marvels From Microfluidic Devices

Tiny new laboratory tools termed microfluidic devices are helping biomedical researchers to better understand the physiological and chemical processes underlying high blood pressure, stroke, sickle cell disease and other disorders, according to a new article. One of the exciting developments described in the article is a "lung on a chip" device that will give researchers new insights into fluid...

Embryonic Stem Cells Thrive When Shaken

Researchers have discovered that gently shaking embryonic stem cells, similar to how an embryo is shaken in the mother's womb, improves their development and could some day even be used to control what type of cell they eventually become.

Superbugs, Shapes And Nanotechnology

A common hospital superbug called Clostridium difficile has a protective coat of armor that can self assemble when put into a test tube on its own, which may have important commercial uses in nanotechnology, according to scientists.

Virological Evidence Cannot Prove Transmission In HIV Criminal Cases

Virological evidence cannot prove transmission in HIV criminal cases, warn experts. Viral phylogenetics provides a way of assessing the relations between viruses from different people. It allows us to estimate the probability that viruses from two particular people have a recent common origin. But there are serious limitations on what can and cannot be inferred using this technique.


Ocean Depths 'No Haven' From Global Catastrophes

There may be nowhere for life to hide from the effects of climate change or asteroids hitting the Earth, according to new research. On the ocean floor 'islands' of exotic deep-sea life have been found to thrive around volcanic vents and other seabed features. Scientists used to think these 'islands' on the ocean floor acted as 'air-raid shelters' for some species during global catastrophes....

Social Cues Used By Those With Autism Illuminated

New research suggests that individuals with autism take note of social cues such as eye contact more closely than previously thought, regardless of whether or not they have an additional language impairment. Many researchers believe that poor social understanding lies at the heart of autistic disorders. Testing this hypothesis has traditionally proved tricky as the methods used are often far...

Facial Characteristics Offer Insights Into Genetic Conditions

The general public easily recognises the faces of people with Down's syndrome, but there are over 700 genetic conditions where there are characteristic facial features: the eyes may be set further apart than usual, the nose shorter and the ears set lower down on the head along with many other possible permutations. Clinical geneticists use these face shape differences as important clues in the...