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152,381 articles from ScienceDaily

Chemical Culprit In 'Popcorn Worker's Lung' Identified

Researchers have identified a chemical agent that may be a, if not the, culprit in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), or "popcorn worker's lung," a severe occupational lung disease first noted in 2001 among workers at an American plant that makes microwaveable popcorn. The research examined a population of workers at a chemical plant that produced diacetyl (a key component of butter...

How Much Will You Pay To Live Near People Like You?

Using restricted-access Census data, a new study examines a quarter-million households on a block-by-block basis to yield new results about the correlation between household attributes and school quality. The researchers find that, conditional on income, households prefer to self-segregate on the basis of both race and education.

Poor Indoor Air Quality Means Poorer Health For Patients With COPD

Poor indoor air quality can significantly worsen health problems in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, according to a recent article. High concentrations of fine particulate pollution -- the type of pollution associated with secondhand smoke and, in developing countries, indoor cooking and heating fires -- were strongly linked to poorer health status.

Underage Drinking Starts Before Adolescence

As schools reopen around the country, a new study finds that parents and teachers should pay attention to alcohol prevention starting as early as fourth grade. A review of national and statewide surveys conducted over the last 15 years shows that among typical 4th graders, 10 percent have already had more than a sip of alcohol and 7 percent have had a drink in the past year. The surveys also show...

Field Museum To Return Human Remains To New Zealand

A delegation from New Zealand will arrive in Chicago September 3 to take the human remains of at least 14 Maori individuals back to New Zealand, accompanied by two Field Museum curators and seven representatives of Chicago's American Indian Center. A repatriation ceremony will be held September 10 at the Museum of New Zealand in Wellington, New Zealand. The remains include bones, such as mandibles...

New Insights Into Common Knee Injuries

The sort of swelling that occurs when a joint is damaged by injury or degeneration is normally essential to the healing process, but when it comes to the knee, that inflammation can actually interfere with healing. These findings in experiments with pigs may lead to treatments for injuries or osteoarthritis in the knee, according orthopedic researchers. There are drugs that can block the action of...

New Technique Detects Specific Chromosomal Damage, May Indicate Lung Cancer Risk

A new technique could pave the way toward screening people at risk for lung cancer for the genetic changes that may foreshadow malignancies, according to a new article. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S., and kills more people than the next three most common cancers--colon, breast and prostate--combined. While it is well-established that smoking is the primary risk...

Breeders Fortifying Wheat With Consumers In Mind

Wheat breeders are working to put a "little muscle" into bread, in addition to helping producers get better yields, said a Texas Agricultural Experiment Station researcher. Bread producers need stronger gluten flours, according to one wheat breeder. Gluten is the protein in wheat that allows bread to expand and hold the shape.

Fighting Malaria By Tricking Mosquito's Sense Of Smell

By mapping a specialized sensory organ that the malaria mosquito uses to zero in on its human prey, researchers have taken an important step toward developing new and improved repellents and attractants that can be used to reduce the threat of malaria, generally considered the most prevalent life-threatening disease in the world.

Neurotransmitter Current Not Flowing Through Ion Channels

In studying how neurotransmitters travel between cells, Cornell researchers have discovered that an electrical current thought to be present during that process does not, in fact, exist. The scientists explained that neurotransmitters and hormones are stored in neurons -- nerve cells -- in small packets, membrane-bound vesicles, typically 30 to 300 nanometers in diameter. When a cell is stimulated...

One-fourth Of HIV Patients Believe Their Doctors Stigmatize Them

Physicians might want to be extra careful about how they treat HIV-infected patients --not just in the clinical sense but in the way they behave toward them. Even the perception that physicians are stigmatizing patients for carrying the virus that causes AIDS can discourage these individuals from seeking proper medical care, according to a new study.

Who Will Recover Spontaneously From Hepatitis C Virus Infection?

Twenty to fifty percent of HCV infected patients recovers spontaneously. Scientists have investigated 67 spontaneously recovered patients and found that co-infection by hepatitis B virus is associated with a higher possibility of self recovery. In addition, patients who self recovered usually have lower levels of HCV antibody. But on the other hand, the researchers also found that active IV drug...

Eco-tilling Detects Herbicide Resistance Early

A new molecular tool to help farmers address one of the major threats to conventional agricultural practices -- herbicide resistance -- has just been developed. More than 305 types of weed in more than 50 countries have been reported to be resistant to at least one herbicide, and an increasing number of weeds owe their success to their genetic diversity. Scientists say techniques are needed to...

Factors That Accelerate Resistance To Targeted Therapy In Lymphoblastic Leukemia Found

New results explain why the targeted therapy drug, imatinib, or Gleevec™, which has revolutionized the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia, (CML) is often unable to prevent relapse of a particularly aggressive form of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Targeted therapy drugs are designed to block the activity of a specific molecule, a strategy aimed at making treatments more effective...

Investigating The Evolution Of Drug Resistance In Malaria Parasites

Scientists hope to understand how the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum evolved resistance to the once-effective medication chloroquine. They have about 11,000 archived human blood samples from malarious regions of the Pacific collected from the 1950s to the present. The samples will be analyzed and researchers will document the accumulation of genetic changes that resulted in chloroquine's...

You're Likely To Order More Calories At A 'Healthy' Restaurant

A new study explains the "American obesity paradox": the parallel rise in obesity rates and the popularity of healthier food. In a series of four studies, the researchers reveal that we over-generalize "healthy" claims. In fact, consumers chose beverages, side dishes, and desserts containing up to 131 percent more calories when the main dish was positioned as "healthy."

'Alien' Jaws Help Moray Eels Feed

Moray eels have a unique way of feeding reminiscent of a science fiction thriller, researchers have discovered. After seizing prey in its jaws, a second set of jaws located in the moray's throat reaches forward into the mouth, grabs the food and carries it back to the esophagus for swallowing.

A Dog In The Hand Scares Birds In The Bush

New research showing that dog-walking in bushland significantly reduces bird diversity and abundance will lend support to bans against the practice in sensitive bushland and conservation areas. Until now, arguments and debate about the ecological impacts of dog-walking have remained subjective and unresolved because experimental evidence has been lacking.

A Faster Class Of Antidepressants

Studies with rats have revealed the potential in an entirely new class of antidepressants that take effect after only days of treatment versus the weeks required for current drugs. The researchers said that they hope their findings will spur development of such new antidepressant drugs so that clinical testing can begin quickly.

A Force For Democracy -- Or Information Chaos? Expert Forum Spotlights Blogging

Controversial Internet entrepreneur turned cultural critic Andrew Keen, who says the revolution of interactivity and user-generated content on the internet is leading to 'less culture, less reliable news and a chaos of useless information' is one contributor certain to ignite debate at the two-day conference at the University of York. Innovations such as Facebook, MySpace and YouTube -- known as...

Adult Brain Can Change, Study Confirms

It is well established that a child's brain has a remarkable capacity for change, but controversy continues about the extent to which such plasticity exists in the adult human primary sensory cortex. Now, neuroscientists have used converging evidence from brain imaging and behavioral studies to show that the adult visual cortex does indeed reorganize -- and that the change affects visual...

Air Quality In Airplanes: Blame Ozone And Natural Oils On Skin

Airline passengers and crews who gripe about poor cabin air quality could have a new culprit to blame: the oils on their skin, hair and clothing. A new study suggests interactions between body oils and ozone found in airplane cabins could lead to the formation of chemical byproducts that might worsen nasal irritation, headaches, dry eyes and lips, and other common air traveler complaints.

Ancient Human DNA Extracted From Yucca Leaves Spat Out

In a groundbreaking study, two Harvard scientists have for the first time extracted human DNA from ancient artifacts. The work potentially opens up a new universe of sources for ancient genetic material, which is used to map human migrations in prehistoric times. Before this, archaeologists could only get ancient DNA from relics of the human body itself, including prehistoric teeth, bones,...

Angkor -- Medieval 'Hydraulic City' -- Unwittingly Engineered Its Environmental Collapse

The architects of Cambodia's famed Angkor -- the world's most extensive medieval "hydraulic city" -- unwittingly engineered its environmental collapse, say scientists. This revelation supports a disputed hypothesis by French archaeologist Bernard-Philippe Groslier, who 50 years ago suggested that the vast medieval settlement of Angkor was defined, sustained, and ultimately overwhelmed by...